Layers of the Atmosphere


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Layers of the Atmosphere

  1. 2. Layers of the Atmosphere Weather and Climate
  2. 3. Layers of the Atmosphere <ul><li>There are 4 layers of the atmosphere </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Troposphere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stratosphere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mesosphere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thermosphere </li></ul></ul>
  3. 4. Layers of the Atmosphere <ul><li>There are 3 boundaries between the layers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tropopause </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stratopause </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mesopause </li></ul></ul>
  4. 5. Troposphere <ul><li>From the surface of the earth to about 10km above the earth’s surface </li></ul><ul><li>All weather occurs in the troposphere </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature gets cooler at a constant rate as altitude increases </li></ul><ul><li>Tropopause : The boundary at the top of the troposphere. The low temperature (-55C) keeps the water vapor and clouds in the troposphere. </li></ul>
  5. 6. Troposphere <ul><li>Temperature Inversion: Warm air traps cooler air near the earth’s surface. The cooler air can not rise and it becomes very polluted. </li></ul><ul><li>Where do we see examples of this phenomenon </li></ul><ul><li>Denver , Salt Lake City and Los Angeles </li></ul>
  6. 7. Stratosphere <ul><li>10km to about 50km above the earth’s surface </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature gets warmer with increasing altitude </li></ul><ul><li>No water vapor in the the stratosphere results in few clouds and no storms </li></ul><ul><li>Stratopause: The boundary between the top of the Stratosphere and the bottom of the Mesosphere </li></ul><ul><li>Ozone Layer: In the upper part Stratosphere and absorbs the sun’s ultra-violet radiation. </li></ul><ul><li>How does the ozone layer affect us? </li></ul>
  7. 8. Mesosphere <ul><li>Extends from 50km to 80km above the earth’s surface </li></ul><ul><li>Temperatures decrease with increasing altitude </li></ul><ul><li>At the top of the mesosphere is the coldest part of the earth’s atmosphere where temperatures drop below -80 degrees C </li></ul><ul><li>Mesopause: The boundary between the top of the Mesosphere and the bottom of the thermosphere </li></ul>
  8. 9. Thermosphere <ul><li>Extends from 80km to 480km above the earth’s surface. </li></ul><ul><li>Temperatures increase with an increase in altitude and become very hot </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Average temperature is 980 degrees C (1796 F) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ionosphere: lower portion of the thermosphere where Auroras occur </li></ul>
  9. 10. Aurora Borealis in Alaska
  10. 11. Changes in Earth’s Atmosphere <ul><li>Early Earth : 4.4 billion years ago to 2.5 billion years ago </li></ul><ul><li>As the earth began to solidify, volcanic eruptions released gases in a process call outgassing </li></ul><ul><li>Early Earth Atmosphere was mainly composed of: carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen, ammonia (NH3), methane (CH4), H20 and other trace gases </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NO free oxygen ! The earth’s early atmosphere would be poisonous to us today! </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 12. Changes in Earth’s Atmosphere <ul><li>About 2.5 billion years ago bacteria and other single-celled organisms began using photosynthesis to change sunlight into food. This process released oxygen into the air and gradually changed the earth’s atmosphere. </li></ul><ul><li>About 350 million years ago the atmosphere reached its current composition </li></ul><ul><li>What two elements make up most of the earth’s atmosphere today? </li></ul><ul><li>Current atmosphere is mainly composed of: nitrogen (about 78%), oxygen (about 21%), and trace gases. </li></ul>
  12. 13. Greenhouse Effect <ul><li>A process in which atmospheric gases trap some of the energy from the sun in the troposphere. </li></ul><ul><li>This helps to keep the earth warm. </li></ul><ul><li>How the Greenhouse Effect works: </li></ul><ul><li>Solar radiation warms the earths surface and returns to the atmosphere as heat radiation. </li></ul><ul><li>Greenhouse gases (CO2 + H2O) in the atmosphere trap some of the heat radiation and it radiates back towards Earth. </li></ul><ul><li>Forest fires and the burning fossil fuels adds more CO2 to the atmosphere. This traps more heat radiation in the troposphere. </li></ul><ul><li>An increase in the amount of heat radiation in the troposphere is a possible cause of……? </li></ul><ul><li>Global Warming </li></ul>
  13. 14. Exit Slip <ul><li>Individual Non-Stop Write: </li></ul><ul><li>Write non-stop for 2 minutes answering the question: What do you know about the layers of the atmosphere? </li></ul><ul><li>Do your best to fill your exit slip with complete sentences to explain your understanding of the atmosphere. Keep writing for the entire 2 minutes! If you need to, write questions and predictions to keep writing! </li></ul><ul><li>Please write any questions/concerns/predictions you might have about weather and the atmosphere on the back of your card!  </li></ul>
  14. 15. Videos <ul><li>Antarctica Auroras </li></ul><ul><li>Space Auroras </li></ul><ul><li>Greenhouse </li></ul>