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  • After you click in the first animation, the sentence will seem to read, “When wave speed was held constant, the frequency of the sound increased.” While a sentence like that is written in perfectly good academic language, it seems to infer that holding the wave speed constant caused the frequency of the sound to increase. This is a great time to point this out to students and prompt them to think about whether or not holding wave speed constant is really a “cause” or if it is simply a condition.
  • Notice with each progressive slide, less support in the graphic organizer s provided. This is an intentional effort to: 1) encourage students to use their notes 2) encourage students to think for themselves.
  • Often, students need some help with “academic” language. As I teach ELA and special education 9th graders, I often give my students some choices to use when constructing an academic language sentence. In this cause and effect assignment, I would put words up on the board such as: because, because of, as a result, caused, led to, resulted in, if…then…, due to, etc.
  • Younger students may be able to better grasp this concept if it is more general – replacing “doubled” with increased and calling it simply a direct relationship.
  • Younger students may be able to better grasp this concept if it is more general – replacing “doubled” and “halved” with “increased” and “decreased” and calling it simply an inverse relationship.

Transcript

  • 1. Good Morning!• Today, we will: – talk about cause and effect relationships – write cause and effect relationships for wave speed, wavelength, and frequency• Please DO BEFORE THE BELL: – get your lab notebook – get out something to write with
  • 2. Cause and EffectWhy did it happen? What happened? The soccer ball Jaime kicked rolled across the soccer ball. the field. Cause Effect
  • 3. Cause and Effect• Sometimes it’s easier to start with the effect because that’s what you see/hear/experienceWhy did it happen? What happened? Vincent stayed up Vincent fell all night playing video games. asleep in class. Cause Effect
  • 4. Cause and EffectWhen wave speed was held constant… The wavelength of The frequency the vibrating string of the sound was shortened. increased. Cause Effect
  • 5. Cause and EffectWhen wavelength was held constant… The frequency The speed of the of the sound wave decreased. decreased.
  • 6. Cause and Effect Relationships• Using academic language, describe the cause and effect relationship between:1. frequency and wave speed when wavelength is constant2. frequency and wavelength when wave speed is constant
  • 7. Mathematical Relationships• The formula that relates wave speed, wavelength and frequency is: • V= f x λ• In the next few slides, we’ll look at some mathematical relationships between these variables.
  • 8. V=f x λ• If wavelength is held constant and frequency is doubled, what happens to wave speed (velocity)? – velocity doubles• If increasing one variable causes another variable to increase by the same magnitude, that relationship is called a directly proportional relationship.
  • 9. V=f x λ• If wave speed is held constant and frequency is doubled, what happens to wavelength? – wavelength is halved• If increasing one variable causes another variable to decrease by the inverse of the same magnitude, that relationship is called a inversely proportional relationship.
  • 10. Mathematical Relationships• Using mathematical reasoning and language, create a mathematical example that describes the cause and effect relationship between:1. frequency and wave speed when wavelength is constant2. frequency and wavelength when wave speed is constant