Global Trust Pawlowski Yalaho 20090820Presentation Transcript
Awareness and Trust in Globally Distributed Settings Jan M. Pawlowski, Anicet Yalaho INFORTE Seminar, Hankasalmi, 20.08.2009
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Global Information Systems, University of Jyväskylä (JYU)
Global Information Systems (GLIS)
Knowledge Management & E-Learning
Internationalization / Globalization; support of globally distributed groups
Cultural aspects for learning and knowledge management
Support through Information and Communication Technologies
Standardization, Quality Management and Assurance for E-Learning
OpenScout: Management education in Europe and North Africa as application field for open content
COSMOS / Open Science Resources: Exchange of Scientific Content
ASPECT: Open Content and standards for schools
iCOPER: New standards for educational technologies
Nordlet: Nordic - Baltic community of Open Educational Resources Exchange
LaProf: Language Learning Open Educational Resources for Agriculture
Global Information Systems
The team Kati Clements Mirja Pulkkinen, Ph.D. Anicet Yalaho, Ph.D. Denis Kozlov Kirsi Syynimaa Marjo Halmiala Jan M. Pawlowski Philipp Holtkamp Henri Pirkkalainen
Context Awareness: Cultural Influence Factors
Trust in different cultures…
Context: Global Social Networks [Source: http://www.linkedin.com]
How do “soft factors” like trust and awareness influence work and knowledge processes in globally distributed settings?
How can we support and facilitate processes by increasing trust and awareness?
How to incorporate these factors into research designs?
Trust and awareness in global settings
Global Process Support
Context and culture metadata
Summary and discussion
Extensively studied in Economics (Management, Marketing …etc)
Expectation that another individual or group will
have good faith and make efforts to behave in accordance with any commitments, both explicit or implicit
be honest in whatever negotiations precede those commitments, and
not take excessive advantage of others even when the opportunity (to renegotiate) is available (Bromiley and Cummings 1992)
Mutual confidence that no party in an exchange will exploit one another’s vulnerabilities (Barney and Hansen 1994)
One party’s confidence that the other party in the exchange relationship will not exploit its vulnerabilities (Dyer and Chu 2000)
The belief that a party’s word or promise is reliable and a party will fulfill its obligations in an exchange relationship (Schurr and Ozane 1987, p 940)
A firm’s belief that another company will perform actions that will result in positive outcomes for the firm, as well as not taking unexpected actions that would result in negative outcomes for the firm Anderson and (Anderson and Narus 1990)
Willingness to rely on an exchange partner in confidence (Ganesan 1994)
Actions that increase one’s vulnerability to the other (Deutsch 1958)
Exceptions that arise within a community of regular, honest, and cooperative parties, based on commonly shared norms, on the part of other members of that community (Fukuyama 1995)
An expectation held by an agent that its trading partner will behave in a mutually acceptable manner (Sako 1998)
The mutual confidence that no party to an exchange will exploit the other’s vulnerability. Trust is today widely regarded as a precondition for competitive success (Sabel 1993)
Perceived credibility and benevolence of a target of trust (Doney and Cannon 1997)
Confidence in the business relationship. The definition is extended to include risk, and it focuses on the relationships that directly involve computers and telecommunications, thus creating a trust bond (Keen 1999)
The subjective probability with which organizational members collectively assess that a particular transaction will occur according to their confident expectations (Ratnasingam and Pavlou 2002; 2003)
Characteristics of trust
A rational or ‘objective’ view which is based on an economic perspective
A Relational or ‘subjective’ view is based on social perspective
Trust in global settings
Swift trust: “a unique form of collective perception, rather than scaled-down trust, for temporary, but not trivial, situations”
Source: Meyerson et al. (1996)
Communication conveying enthusiasm
Substantive and timely responses
Phlegmatic reaction to crisis
Source: Jarvenpaa and Leidner (1998)
Awareness: Introduction Context Cultural Situation Location Social / personal
Generally: Perception or consciousness of objects or activities
Ability of computing devices to detect and sense, interpret and respond to aspects of a user's local environment and the computing devices themselves (Hull et al., 1997)
But also: Entities influencing a situation, person or object
Focused on the perception, comprehension and projection of complex situations (Endsley, Garland, 2000)
Focused on persons, groups, organizations
Focused on the cultural characteristics
Awareness in global settings
Social awareness for virtual team work (Dafoulas & Macaulay, 2001)
Social awareness for coordination (Redmiles et al., 2007)
How are trust and awareness handled and studied in global settings?
Trust: Qualitative study on global outsourcing processes
Awareness: Representing context and culture
Trust for global cooperation: A case study
Source: Yalaho (2006)
Trust for global cooperation: A case study
Case 1. FinSoftAlfa (client )
The FinSoftAlfa Company was established in Finland in May 2000
It provides customized software development services in two related areas: 1) Embedded Systems and 2) Video /Audio / Image Processing
It established an offshore outsourcing strategic partnership with IndiaSoftNet
Case 2. IndiaSoft (Service provider)
IndiaSoftNet was founded in 1998, headquartered in Bangalore, India.
IndiaSoftNet is a 300-person organization, and partners with global customers located across the US, UK, France, Scandinavia
It is a leading provider of large-scale application outsourcing and custom software development, integration and maintenance services
IndiaSoftNet is a CMM Level 4 5
IndiaSoftNet operates under a global delivery model exploiting
IndiaSoftNet was the preferred service provider of FinSoftAlfa for several years
Trust for global cooperation: A case study
Factors that contribute to trust in global cooperation
Personal reference or contact
Culture and Context Awareness: A case study
How can we represent culture and context
Can those representations be used for awareness raising
How can those representations be used for adaptive systems
Literature review, expert interviews
Model construction; validation
Context Metadata (Pawlowski, Richter, 2007) Culture Companies Rules, standards and agreements Human actors Financial aspects Media richness Internet security Demographical development Learner satisfaction Religion Geography & education infrastructure Technical infrastructure Rights History Politics State of development Information & Knowledge Systems
Example: Cultural Context Classes (Pawlowski, Richter, 2007)
Presentation Contains Product Defined Culture Competencies Contains Characteristic
Culture Awareness Process Self reflection Culture Profiling Profile Comparison Defining similarities and differences Understanding / Integration Culture Awareness Process Problem statement Goal statement Problem elaboration Conflict identification & resolution Experience sharing Collaborative Work Process
Technical validation (system design experiments)
Adaptive systems require extended representations of cultural characteristics
Culture metadata can be used to design systems based on cultural characteristics, in particular to adapt process logic
Culture metadata can be used to generate awareness objects (culture profiles, culture clouds)
User validation (pilot; 50 students in Germany and Korea)
Profiles trigger reflection processes on cultural issues
Users consider metadata understandable and helpful
Users have searched for further information in other sources
Study in Higher Education group of learners and teachers
Trust and awareness factors influence global groups and global business processes in different phases
Trust is considered a critical success factor
Culture and context model as a starting point for in-depth investigation of different types of awareness
New areas to explore – both, in basic research as well as applied settings
Jan M. Pawlowski
Tel.: +358 14 260 2596
Tel.:+358 14 260 4625
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