Context culture metadata_openscout20120301


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The Personalization Challenge: Context and Culture Metadata for Mobile Learning

In this keynote, we addressed m-learning adaptation based on a standardized context description. The context description contains cultural, organization and individual factors as a base for adaptable and adaptive systems. This is used on the openscout project which is about adaptation of learning resources also in the international context.

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Context culture metadata_openscout20120301

  1. 1. The Personalization Challenge:Context and Culture Metadata for Mobile Learning Prof. Dr. Jan M. Pawlowski Keynote Speech, MMS / MKWI 2012 March 2012
  2. 2. Licensing: Creative Commons You are free: – to Share — to copy, distribute and transmit the work – to Remix — to adapt the work Under the following conditions: – Attribution. You must attribute the work in the manner specified by the author or licensor (but not in any way that suggests that they endorse you or your use of the work). – Noncommercial. You may not use this work for commercial purposes. – Share Alike. If you alter, transform, or build upon this work, you may distribute the resulting work only under the same or similar license to this one.
  3. 3. …Jyväskylä, Finland…Source: [,]
  4. 4. Global Information Systems, University of Jyväskylä (JYU) - The Team Denis Kozlov Kati Clements Philipp Holtkamp Henri Pirkkalainen Jan M. Pawlowski My background Ph.D. Business Information Systems, University of Essen Habilitation ―Quality Management / Integration of Knowledge Management and E-Learning‖ Professor in ―Global Information Systems‖ Chair CEN/ISSS Workshop Learning Technologies ISO/IEC JTC1 SC36 Project Editor
  5. 5. JYU: Global Information SystemsFocus areas Projects Global Information Systems OpenScout: OER for Supporting globally distributed Management workgroups TELMAP: Technology Open Educational Resources Forecasting Reference Modeling NORDLET: Nordic Baltic Network for Learning, Education and TrainingE-Learning COSMOS, Open Science Supporting international Resources: Exchange of education settings Scientific Content Cultural adaptation ASPECT: Open Content Standardization & Quality and standards for schools Management iCOPER: New standards for Mobile & Ambient Learning educational technologies Innovative tools and solutions LaProf: Language learning in ICT and agriculture
  6. 6. What is context all about…?
  7. 7. Sauna: German instructions
  8. 8. Sauna: American instructions
  9. 9. Sauna: Finnish instructions
  10. 10. M-Learning around the world…
  11. 11. Where is m-learning going…?Mobile devices: Smart phones, tablets – New forms of flexible, 24/7 accessible learning – Multi-modal scenarios (touchscreens, movements, haptic feedback, …) – Adoption: highLearning apps – Specialized learning applications (eg vocabulary training, … – New business models – Adoption: lowMobile access to social networks – Learning aspects in social networks – Connection of leisure, work and learning – New forms of informal learning – International collaborations – Adoption: high
  12. 12. Where is m-learning going…?Personal Learning Environments – Adaptable / adaptive learning scenarios including mobile devices / scenarios – Tailored to individuals’ needs – Adoption: medium-highLocation based scenarios – Contents and services based on the location (eg library services, lecture notes in auditorium, …) – People identification (eg fellow learners) – Adoption: low-mediumAugmented reality – Embedding (situative) learning applications in real contexts – Learning about objects, scenarios, places – Learning in real world scenarios – Adoption: very low
  13. 13. The challengesApplications should be usable… Adaptation – …on different devices – …in different contexts – …for different preferencesCurrent main approaches Convergence – Content adaptation to devices / screen size – Context adaptation to location Integration – Some adaptation to user behaviourNecessary to understand the context – External aspects / factors influencing a learning situationNo current standards or specifications, only forparts (learner preferences, devicespecifications, protocols)! So what is context? How can we capture context?
  14. 14. Some context categoriesPlaces – Coordinates – Landscape – Artefacts – Noise level – …People – Location – Interests – Purpose – …Culture – Organization – Ethnic (region, country, origin, …)The context contains factorswhich influence m-learningscenarios but are not directlyinfluenced by the designprocess – External – Long-term
  15. 15. What is needed?A clear description and representation of the context to – Allow adaptable and adaptive solutions – Allow re-use of context descriptions in different systems and environmentsConsensus process amongst experts – Researchers (what are the influence factors and how do they influence design processes?) – Practitioners: designers, developers, users, … – Learners, educatorsInstruments – Free text descriptions – Formal models – Ontologies – Metadata – … – Standards
  16. 16. Metadata specification processInclude stakeholdersDefine possible metadata candidatesReduceNegotiate and agreeTest and validateImproveMany specifications, many candidates, noclear understanding yet…
  17. 17. Context Metadata (Pawlowski, Richter, 2007) Internet Culture Demographical security development Learner Religion satisfactionGeography & Technical education infrastructureinfrastructure Information &Companies Knowledge Rights Rules,standards and Systems History agreements Human actors Politics Financial State of aspects Media richness development
  18. 18. Contextualized Attention Metadata (CAM) Source:
  19. 19. Our approach Action in the CEN Workshop Learning Technologies (European Standardization Body) Based on – Context Metadata – Contextualized Attention Metadata Application / guidance for M-Learning
  20. 20. European Initiatives: OpenScoutContinuous learning in management … Development of management skills essential Growing need for learning materials – Diverse topics, up-to-date, high-quality, inexpensive – Easy to access, skill-specific, adaptable, re-usable Open educational management content available, but many usage barriers… utilizing openly accessible learning materials Easy-to-use web services to access open content Support all phases of using open learning materials Validate Re-use / Validate Search re- Re-publish adapt solution usability 20
  21. 21. Background: OpenScout project Creating access to OER for business and management – Adaptation for multi-national and multi-cultural use – Tool and resource recommendation based on a metadata specification – Providing interfaces to mobile search and to mobile contents Portal at – Single access point for business and management content – Finding learning materials around the globe – Providing simple tools to use and adapt these materials – Creating a social environment where communities can collaborate – Integrating the services and tools to existing solutions of organizations (LMSs, KMSs, Social networks etc.)21
  22. 22. Background: OpenScout project M-Learning @ OpenScout – Finding M-Learning contents – Identifying adaptation needs by using the context and culture specification M-Learning Opportunities – Access to OpenScout repository using iOS application – Embedding widgets in mobile PLE – Social network discourse (facebook, linkedin, twitter)22
  23. 23. Raw specification inputCandidate metadata models for – Culture – Organizations – Individuals – Technologies – Situations – Problems –…What do you consider as useful? Which contextattributes have you used? Which aspects shouldbe cut?
  24. 24. Specification: CultureGeneral General profile Name, Creator, Date of creation, Type description (organizational, individual, national)General: References to other Vcard reference, LIP reference, e-Reference profiles portfolio reference, Europass- reference, other referencesCulture: General Description of the Society type, individualism, cultural context masculinity, power distance, rituals, language, gender differences, behavioral norms,Culture: Legal Description of legal Intellectual property rights, internet background securityCulture: Historical influences Historical milestones, symbols, heroesHistoricalCulture: Political Political situation Political system, parties, personsCulture: Religion Influence of religion System, confession, group, religious leaders, influence on societyCulture: Status of development Infrastructure, GNPDevelopment
  25. 25. Specification: Individual aspectsIndividual: Individual attributes Competences, educationalGeneral preferences, media preferences, accessibility requirements, devices, …Individual: Culture related Country visits, situations, conflicts,Experiences experiences attitudes, casesIndividual: Description of Common pedagogical approaches,Educational educational teaching style, relation to teachers / preferences fellow learners, group workIndividual: Description of Electronic communication, face toCommunication communication face communication, communication preferences in groups, feedback preferencesIndividual: Description of mobile Device name, operating systems,Mobile device attributes language,Individual: Social interactions Reference to CAM (attentionBehavior metadata) recordsIndividual: Situations in which the Environment, location, actors, noiseSituation context is used level, connectivity, …
  26. 26. Using the Spec: M-Learning Design ImplicationsCulture: General Didactical design Adaptation / change of didactic Mobile interface design strategy (depending on collaboration Mobile devices patterns, preferences) Collaboration Adaption towards cultural preferences (colors), language, terminology Acceptance / trends of mobile devices in different countries / cultures Adaptation of how people communicate and collaborate (e.g. Metadata Influences on M-Learning different communication paths, group Sample adaptation steps Design work strategies)Culture: Mobile devices Identification which devices areDevelopment Mobile interface design available / usable (e.g. bandwidth, Mobility connection types, networks) Which locations can be used for mobile scenariosOrganizational: Mobility Adaptation based on aspects such asTechnical network speed, bandwidth, operating systems, Adaptation where and for whom mobile devices are used
  27. 27. Using the Spec: M-Learning Design ImplicationsIndividual: Didactical Adaptation of learning strategy according toEducational Communication and preferences (e.g. individual vs group learning, collaboration learning style, …) Mobility Adaptation where mobile scenarios take placeIndividual: Communication and Provision of preferred communication toolsCommunication collaboration (e.g. social network, messenger used by Didactical learner) Different communication networks and paths Adaptation of social interactionIndividual: Mobile Mobile interface design Adaptation to operating system and device Mobility characteristics Media types Adaptation of contents according to display size Adaptation of mobile scenarios according to available location-based services Adaptation of media according to available display options Localization to preferred languageIndividual: Behavior Collaboration and Adaptation based on previous (successful) communication scenarios Didactical Collaboration with previous learning partners Mobility Recommendation of contentsIndividual: Situation Mobility Adaptation based on situation of media types Collaboration and (e.g. no audio in noisy environments, no communication graphics in bright sunlight) Didactical Adaptation of collaboration depending which potential collaborators are available near the learner or online
  28. 28. Using the Spec: Culture Profiles Culture Profile Instance (Nation / Region)Learner Profile E-Portfolio / ELM•Identification Culture Profile Instance •Organizations•Goals Instantiation (Group) •Identification•Qualifications •Resources•Activities Culture Profile •Products•… Instance (Actor) •… •…Culture Profile •Experience 1: StudySpecification Netherlands Contains•General •Experience 2: Project Characteristic•Reference Korea•Educational •Native Culture: Germany•Culture •…•Communication•… Contains Product Presentation Defined Culture CompetenciesINLOC•Competency description•Evidence•…
  29. 29. SummaryContext metadata are necessary to designadaptable / adaptive systemsContext metadata are useful for designprocessesMany aspect covered, not all explored fully(e.g. cultural adaptation)More research necessary for automaticadaptationForthcoming standardization will lead to abroad consensus process
  30. 30. Join the process!Let’s discuss 
  31. 31. Contact InformationProf. Dr. Jan M. Pawlowski Skype: jan_m_pawlowski Office: Telephone +358 50 443 2389