Mind Wars:
Brain Research and
National Defense
Jonathan D. Moreno
David and Lyn Silfen University ProfessorDate
UNIVERSCIT...
Recent Academies Projects
 Committee on Military and Intelligence Methodology forCommittee on Military and Intelligence M...
National Security, the Brain and Behavior:
Post WW II-era
 Hallucinogens
 Neuropsychiatry of
stress
 Personality theory...
Allen DullesAllen Dulles
 Legendary CIA directorLegendary CIA director
 Commissioned Wolf-Commissioned Wolf-
Hinkle repo...
Sidney GottliebSidney Gottlieb
 CIA spymasterCIA spymaster
 Developed toxic itemsDeveloped toxic items
for assassination...
Henry BeecherHenry Beecher
 Icon of human researchIcon of human research
ethicsethics
 Harvard anesthesiologyHarvard ane...
Henry A. MurrayHenry A. Murray
 Father of personalityFather of personality
theorytheory
 Director of HarvardDirector of ...
The Professor and theThe Professor and the
UnibomberUnibomber
Kurt LewinKurt Lewin
 Founder of modernFounder of modern
social psychologysocial psychology
 Advised OSS onAdvised OSS o...
J.B. RhineJ.B. Rhine
 Distinguished DukeDistinguished Duke
U. parapsychologyU. parapsychology
researcherresearcher
 ESP ...
The “Mind Race”The “Mind Race”
“The claimed phenomena and applications”…presented
by several military officers, “range fro...
U.S. Test of Simulated Non-U.S. Test of Simulated Non-
Lethal Mortar Round, 2002Lethal Mortar Round, 2002
(Image from Proj...
The Moscow Theater Tragedy,The Moscow Theater Tragedy,
October 2002October 2002
 Chechen terroristsChechen terrorists
occ...
Kay, K. N., Naselaris, T., Prenger, R. J. & Gallant, J. L. NatureKay, K. N., Naselaris, T., Prenger, R. J. & Gallant, J. L...
Non-invasive Brain ImagingNon-invasive Brain Imaging
 Uses fMRI (oxygenation)Uses fMRI (oxygenation)
or PET scans (glucos...
Transcranial MagneticTranscranial Magnetic
StimulationStimulation
 Induces changes in brainInduces changes in brain
activ...
Neuroimaging and theNeuroimaging and the
“Head Web” (DARPA)“Head Web” (DARPA) Noninvasive brainNoninvasive brain
monitori...
The RoboratThe Roborat
No Bull: Jose Delgado’sNo Bull: Jose Delgado’s
“Stimoceiver”, 1958“Stimoceiver”, 1958
Modafinil (Provigil)Modafinil (Provigil)
 PossiblePossible
replacement forreplacement for
amphetaminesamphetamines
The “Anti-Conscience” PillThe “Anti-Conscience” Pill
 Beta blockers can beBeta blockers can be
used to treat stress,used ...
The trust drug?The trust drug?
 Natural oxytocinNatural oxytocin
production isproduction is
associated with trustassociat...
National Research CouncilNational Research Council
August 13, 2008August 13, 2008
 Committee on MilitaryCommittee on Mili...
National Research Council
May 12, 2009
 Near term (within 5 years)
 Immersive virtual reality
 Heartbeat variability
 ...
National Research CouncilNational Research Council
20092009
0
50
100
1st
Qtr
3rd
Qtr
East
West
North
 Goal of workshop: D...
Thank you!Thank you!
 University of PennsylvaniaUniversity of Pennsylvania
 Department of MedicalDepartment of Medical
E...
Dual use (slides)
Dual use (slides)
Dual use (slides)
Dual use (slides)
Dual use (slides)
Dual use (slides)
Dual use (slides)
Dual use (slides)
Dual use (slides)
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  1. 1. Mind Wars: Brain Research and National Defense Jonathan D. Moreno David and Lyn Silfen University ProfessorDate UNIVERSCITY OCF PENNSYLVANIA CENTER FOR BIOETHICS
  2. 2. Recent Academies Projects  Committee on Military and Intelligence Methodology forCommittee on Military and Intelligence Methodology for Emergent Physiological and Cognitive/Neural ScienceEmergent Physiological and Cognitive/Neural Science Research in the Next Two Decades,Research in the Next Two Decades, Emerging CognitiveEmerging Cognitive Neuroscience and Related TechnologiesNeuroscience and Related Technologies, August 2008, August 2008  Committee on Opportunities in Neuroscience for FutureCommittee on Opportunities in Neuroscience for Future Army Applications,Army Applications, Opportunities in Neuroscience forOpportunities in Neuroscience for Future Army ApplicationsFuture Army Applications, May 2009, May 2009  Committee on Field Evaluation of Behavioral andCommittee on Field Evaluation of Behavioral and Cognitive Sciences-Based Methods and Tools forCognitive Sciences-Based Methods and Tools for Intelligence and Counter-Intelligence, WorkshopIntelligence and Counter-Intelligence, Workshop September 2009September 2009
  3. 3. National Security, the Brain and Behavior: Post WW II-era  Hallucinogens  Neuropsychiatry of stress  Personality theory  Parapsychology
  4. 4. Allen DullesAllen Dulles  Legendary CIA directorLegendary CIA director  Commissioned Wolf-Commissioned Wolf- Hinkle report on “brainHinkle report on “brain washing”, 1953washing”, 1953  SubsequentlySubsequently supported varioussupported various hallucinogenic andhallucinogenic and innovative humaninnovative human experimentsexperiments
  5. 5. Sidney GottliebSidney Gottlieb  CIA spymasterCIA spymaster  Developed toxic itemsDeveloped toxic items for assassinationfor assassination (Castro, Patrice(Castro, Patrice Lumumba)Lumumba)  Funded hallucinogenFunded hallucinogen experimentsexperiments  Architect of MKUltraArchitect of MKUltra programprogram
  6. 6. Henry BeecherHenry Beecher  Icon of human researchIcon of human research ethicsethics  Harvard anesthesiologyHarvard anesthesiology professorprofessor  Work on LSD supportedWork on LSD supported by CIAby CIA  Reported foreignReported foreign science contacts to CIAscience contacts to CIA through the 1950sthrough the 1950s
  7. 7. Henry A. MurrayHenry A. Murray  Father of personalityFather of personality theorytheory  Director of HarvardDirector of Harvard Psychological ClinicPsychological Clinic  Explorations inExplorations in PersonalityPersonality, 1938, 1938  Developed ThematicDeveloped Thematic Apperception Test forApperception Test for the US Army duringthe US Army during WWIIWWII  First chiefFirst chief psychologist in thepsychologist in the OSSOSS  Assessment of MenAssessment of Men,, 19481948
  8. 8. The Professor and theThe Professor and the UnibomberUnibomber
  9. 9. Kurt LewinKurt Lewin  Founder of modernFounder of modern social psychologysocial psychology  Advised OSS onAdvised OSS on psychological warfarepsychological warfare  Perhaps up to a third ofPerhaps up to a third of major researchmajor research university faculty wereuniversity faculty were supported by securitysupported by security agencies after WWIIagencies after WWII
  10. 10. J.B. RhineJ.B. Rhine  Distinguished DukeDistinguished Duke U. parapsychologyU. parapsychology researcherresearcher  ESP studiesESP studies  CIA supportedCIA supported starting in 1952starting in 1952  ““Psiops”Psiops”
  11. 11. The “Mind Race”The “Mind Race” “The claimed phenomena and applications”…presented by several military officers, “range from the incredible to the outrageously incredible. The ‘anti-missile time warp,’ for example, is somehow supposed to deflect attack from nuclear warheads so that they will transcend time and explode among the ancient dinosaurs….One suggested application is a conception of the ‘First Earth Battalion,’ made up of ‘warrior monks’…including the use of ESP, leaving their bodies at will, levitating, psychic healing and walking through walls.”  “Enhancing Human Performance: Issues Theories, and Techniques,” Committee on Techniques for the Enhancement of Human Performance, The National Research Council,1988
  12. 12. U.S. Test of Simulated Non-U.S. Test of Simulated Non- Lethal Mortar Round, 2002Lethal Mortar Round, 2002 (Image from Project Sunshine)(Image from Project Sunshine)
  13. 13. The Moscow Theater Tragedy,The Moscow Theater Tragedy, October 2002October 2002  Chechen terroristsChechen terrorists occupy Russianoccupy Russian theater during playtheater during play  Fentanyl pumped intoFentanyl pumped into the heating ductsthe heating ducts  Emergency teams notEmergency teams not informed of the natureinformed of the nature of the agentof the agent  128 die128 die
  14. 14. Kay, K. N., Naselaris, T., Prenger, R. J. & Gallant, J. L. NatureKay, K. N., Naselaris, T., Prenger, R. J. & Gallant, J. L. Nature advanced online publication doi:10.1038/nature067,advanced online publication doi:10.1038/nature067, 15 March 2008).15 March 2008). ““In the experiment, the brain activityIn the experiment, the brain activity of two subjects was monitored whileof two subjects was monitored while they were shown 1,750 differentthey were shown 1,750 different pictures. The team then selected 120pictures. The team then selected 120 novel images that the subjects hadn’tnovel images that the subjects hadn’t seen before, and used the previousseen before, and used the previous results to predict their brainresults to predict their brain responses. When the test subjectsresponses. When the test subjects were shown one of the images, thewere shown one of the images, the team could match the actual brainteam could match the actual brain response to their predictions toresponse to their predictions to accurately pick out which of theaccurately pick out which of the pictures they had been shown. Withpictures they had been shown. With one of the participants they wereone of the participants they were correct 72% of the time, and with thecorrect 72% of the time, and with the other 92% of the time; on chanceother 92% of the time; on chance alone they would have been right onlyalone they would have been right only 0.8% of the time.”0.8% of the time.”
  15. 15. Non-invasive Brain ImagingNon-invasive Brain Imaging  Uses fMRI (oxygenation)Uses fMRI (oxygenation) or PET scans (glucose)or PET scans (glucose)  Correlations ofCorrelations of neurochemistry withneurochemistry with behaviorbehavior  NIRS (Near InfraredNIRS (Near Infrared Spectroscopy) cheaperSpectroscopy) cheaper and portable, alsoand portable, also records oxygenation butrecords oxygenation but poor temporal resolutionpoor temporal resolution
  16. 16. Transcranial MagneticTranscranial Magnetic StimulationStimulation  Induces changes in brainInduces changes in brain activationactivation  Could be used to alter aCould be used to alter a person’s social behaviorperson’s social behavior or attitudesor attitudes  Influence brain functionsInfluence brain functions including physicalincluding physical movement, visualmovement, visual perception, memory,perception, memory, reaction time, speech andreaction time, speech and moodmood
  17. 17. Neuroimaging and theNeuroimaging and the “Head Web” (DARPA)“Head Web” (DARPA) Noninvasive brainNoninvasive brain monitoring devicesmonitoring devices  Contract: “HeadContract: “Head Access LaminarAccess Laminar OptoelectronicOptoelectronic NeuroimagingNeuroimaging System”System”  Contract: “WirelessContract: “Wireless Near-Infrared DevicesNear-Infrared Devices for Neural Monitoringfor Neural Monitoring in Operationalin Operational Environments”Environments”  Security and medicalSecurity and medical usesuses
  18. 18. The RoboratThe Roborat
  19. 19. No Bull: Jose Delgado’sNo Bull: Jose Delgado’s “Stimoceiver”, 1958“Stimoceiver”, 1958
  20. 20. Modafinil (Provigil)Modafinil (Provigil)  PossiblePossible replacement forreplacement for amphetaminesamphetamines
  21. 21. The “Anti-Conscience” PillThe “Anti-Conscience” Pill  Beta blockers can beBeta blockers can be used to treat stress,used to treat stress, prevent PTSDprevent PTSD  Suppress release ofSuppress release of hormones likehormones like norephinephrine thatnorephinephrine that help encode memoryhelp encode memory  Might also reduce guiltMight also reduce guilt feelingsfeelings
  22. 22. The trust drug?The trust drug?  Natural oxytocinNatural oxytocin production isproduction is associated with trustassociated with trust behaviorbehavior  May be artificiallyMay be artificially administered in aadministered in a spray to encouragespray to encourage cooperationcooperation  Use in interrogations?Use in interrogations?
  23. 23. National Research CouncilNational Research Council August 13, 2008August 13, 2008  Committee on MilitaryCommittee on Military and Intelligenceand Intelligence Methodology forMethodology for Emergent PhysiologicalEmergent Physiological andand Cognitive/Neural ScienceCognitive/Neural Science Research in the Next TwoResearch in the Next Two DecadesDecades  Client: DefenseClient: Defense Intelligence AgencyIntelligence Agency
  24. 24. National Research Council May 12, 2009  Near term (within 5 years)  Immersive virtual reality  Heartbeat variability  Galvanic skin response  Medium term (5-10 years)  In-helmet EEG for brain-machine interface  Head and torso impact protection  Biomarkers for predicting soldier response to environmental stress  Far term (10-20 years)  In-vehicle deployment of transcranial magnetic stimulation  Brain scanning to assess physiology  Ongoing (within 5 years with continued updating)  Field-deployable biomarkers of neural state  Biomarkers for sleep levels
  25. 25. National Research CouncilNational Research Council 20092009 0 50 100 1st Qtr 3rd Qtr East West North  Goal of workshop: Describe theGoal of workshop: Describe the barriers to field validation ofbarriers to field validation of analytic and counter-intelligenceanalytic and counter-intelligence tools.tools. Example: Portable lie-detector:Example: Portable lie-detector: ““Preliminary Credibility ScreeningPreliminary Credibility Screening System“ (PCASS)System“ (PCASS)  Committee on FieldCommittee on Field Evaluation of BehavioralEvaluation of Behavioral and Cognitive Sciences-and Cognitive Sciences- Based Methods andBased Methods and Tools for Intelligence andTools for Intelligence and Counter-IntelligenceCounter-Intelligence  Clients are DIA and theClients are DIA and the Office of the DepartmentOffice of the Department of National Intelligenceof National Intelligence  Workshop Sept. 22-23Workshop Sept. 22-23
  26. 26. Thank you!Thank you!  University of PennsylvaniaUniversity of Pennsylvania  Department of MedicalDepartment of Medical EthicsEthics  Department of History andDepartment of History and Sociology of ScienceSociology of Science  Center for BioethicsCenter for Bioethics  Center for CognitiveCenter for Cognitive NeuroscienceNeuroscience  Dana FoundationDana Foundation  Howard Hughes MedicalHoward Hughes Medical InstituteInstitute  National Research CouncilNational Research Council

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