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The earth’s lithosphere
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  • 1. LITHOSPHERE - lithos for "rocky“ Sphaira for “sphere” - The outermost shell of a rocky planet defined on the basis of the mechanical properties.
  • 2. THE LITHOSPHERE IS SOLID AND HARD BECAUSE IT IS MADE OF ROCKS. ROCKS MAY BE COMPOSED OF A SINGLE MINERAL OR GROUP OF MINERALS.
  • 3. ROCKS ROCKS ARE HARD AND SOLID. THESE PROPERTIES MAINTAIN THE SHAPE OF THE EARTH DESPIRE THE MULTITUDE OF FORCES ACTING ON IT.
  • 4. CLASSIFICATION OF ROCKS IGNEOUS ROCKS SEDIMENTARY ROCKS METAMORPHIC ROCKS
  • 5. CLASSIFICATION OF ROCKS IGNEOUS ROCKS  GRANITE  RHYOLITE  SCORIA  ANDESITE  OBSIDIAN  GABBRO  BASALT
  • 6. IGNEOUS ROCKS IGNEOUS ROCKS ARE FORMED FROM MOLTEN MATERIALS CALLED MAGMA THAT CRYSTALLIZE FOR A LONG PERIOD OF TIME.
  • 7. TYPES OF IGNEOUS ROCKS
  • 8. GRANITE ROCKS  It is composed of four minerals: quartz, feldspar, amphibole, and mica. It is light in color and phaneritic in texture.
  • 9. RHYOLITE ROCKS The fine-grained equivalent of granite. Light gray to pinkish in color.
  • 10. SCORIA ROCKS Volcanic rock is composed of many holes. The holes are formed when gases escape as magma solidifies.
  • 11. ANDESITE ROCKS Porphytic igneous rock is abundant at the base of the Andes Mountain Ranges.
  • 12. OBSIDIAN rocks IGNEOUS ROCK APPEARING AS A CHUNK OF SYNTHETIC GLASS.
  • 13. GABBRO rocks Dark, coarse grained equivalent of basalt
  • 14. BASALT rocks Dark in color, fine grained, hard and denser than granite, this rock forms the ocean floor.
  • 15. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS Sedimentary rocks are formed from small particles like weathering and erosion.
  • 16. TYPES OF SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
  • 17. SANDSTONE Sandstone is part of the sedimentary rock family. Quartz is what sandstone is made up of. They are made, when the wind or water, moves the sand in.
  • 18. CONGLOMERATE ROCKS It is a rock consisting of individual clasts within a finergrained matrix that have become cemented together.
  • 19. SHALE ROCKS Shale is a fine-grained, clastic sedimentary rock composed of mud that is a mix of flakes of clay minerals and tiny fragments (silt-sized particles) of other minerals, especially quartz and calcite.
  • 20. LIMESTONE ROCKS It is composed largely of the minerals calcite and aragonite, which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate.
  • 21. LIGNITE ROCKS is a soft brown combustible sedimentary rock that is formed from naturally compressed peat.
  • 22. METAMORPHIC ROCKS METAMORPHIC ROCKS ARE ROCKS THAT CHEMICALLY CHANGED IN FORM, STRUCTURE, AND COMPOSITION UNDER GREAT HEAT AND PRESSURE.
  • 23. TYPES OF METAMORPHIC ROCKS
  • 24. GNEISS ROCKS a common and widely distributed type of rock formed by high-grade regional metamorphic processes from pre-existing formations that were originally either igneous or sedimentary rocks.
  • 25. SLATE ROCKS fine-grained, foliated, homogeneous metamorphic rock derived from an original shale-type sedimentary rock composed of clay or volcanic ash through low-grade regional metamorphism.
  • 26. MARBLE ROCKS a non-foliated metamorphic rock composed of recrystallized carbonate minerals, most commonly calcite or dolomite.
  • 27. ANTHRACITE ROCKS a hard, compact variety of mineral coal that has a highluster. It has the highest carbon content, the fewest impurities, and the highest calorific content of all types of coal.