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Redundancy principle
Redundancy principle
Redundancy principle
Redundancy principle
Redundancy principle
Redundancy principle
Redundancy principle
Redundancy principle
Redundancy principle
Redundancy principle
Redundancy principle
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Redundancy principle


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  • 2 traditional views of the learning process. Information aquisition (IA) + knowledge construction (KC). IA is better explained by the empty vessel analogy: The brain is an empty vessel and information is poured into it. KC refers to the sense-making process of the information that is presented. Ideally, good multimedia leads to KC allowing the learner to remember and apply the learned material. Traditionally, in the design of multimedia, this 2 concepts clash. An example is extraneous processing overload.\n\n
  • Extraneous process overload is likely to occur when the lesson contains attention-grabbing irrelevant material and/or when the lesson is designed in a confusing way. \n
  • Avoid redundancy, i.e., presenting multimedia material in spoken text, printed text and pictures is likely to be less effective as multimedia material presented only spoken text and pictures or printed text and pictures\n
  • Case for adding on-screen text to narrated animation is based on the learning preference hypothesis. 1 delivery path of presented information to the learner: Information may have a hard time getting through. Even worse, one available path may be block if the learner is not efficient in processing material in that form. \n
  • When 2 paths are available more information can still through the learner. However, there may still more blockage in the inflow of information if the learner is unable to use one of the paths. \n
  • 3 delivery paths allow to receive more information than is available using just 2 paths. The premise underlying the learning preference hypothesis is that learners should choose the method of instruction that best suits the way the learn\n
  • Pictures, written text, and spoken text together in multimedia presentation overload the capacity of the human information processing system. The big truck represent words: printed and spoken. \n
  • At the sensorial registry printed words are separated from spoken words. \n
  • In addition to this separation the working memory is overloaded by the selection of images and words in both visual and verbal channels. \n
  • After being selected words and picture continue being processed.\n
  • \n
  • Transcript

    • 1. Information acquisition Knowledge construction
    • 2. Extraneous process overloadCognitive capacity Cognitive capacity OVERLOAD
    • 3. Redundacy T Too much. Avoid!
    • 4. T
    • 5. T T
    • 6. T TSensorial registry
    • 7. Working memoryT T
    • 8. T