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The XII. European Congress of Work
and Organizational Psychology



            PREDICTING ENTREPRENEURIAL
            INT...
INTRODUCTION
The study of entrepreneurship within Psychology field is characterized by:
    •   A lot of descriptive and p...
WORK GOALS

    To analyze the applicability of a Social Psychology Model
   in order to explain and predict the entrepren...
THEORETICAL REVIEW
ENTREPRENEURIAL INTENTION

 Entrepreneurship is the type of planned behavior for which intention
   mod...
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
                      Theory of Planned Behavior (Ajzen, 1991)

                      Attitude




 ...
METHOD
Participants
                The sample size was   2190 Spanish students
                41.1% were men and 57.9%...
METHOD

Measures
 Personal data: Gender, age, level of education and work situation

 Entrepreneurial intention

   a) D...
METHOD
Measures
 Attitudes scales
    General attitude towards Self-Employment
    Attitude funtions of Self-Employment...
RESULTS: ENTREPRENEURIAL INTENTION
•   The entrepreneurial intention obtained the lowest average score.
•   Only 13.5% of ...
RESULTS: ATTITUDES
                                                                                               Correlat...
RESULTS: SUBJECTIVE NORM
                                                                                         Correlat...
RESULTS: PERCEIVED BEHAVIORAL CONTROL
                                                                                    ...
STRUCTURAL EQUATION MODELING
                                                               Figure 2. Intention model from...
STRUCTURAL EQUATION MODELING
THEORY OF REASONED ACTION (TRA) Figure 3. Intention model from Theory of Reasoned Action
    ...
RESULTS: MULTIPLE-GROUP ANALYSIS
DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MEN AND WOMEN

 Model Fit for Men Group                       Model F...
CONCLUSIONS
How is the entrepreneurial intention of Spanish students?
•   The participating Spanish students have low entr...
CONCLUSIONS
How is the subjective norm towards entrepreneurial behavior?
•   This variable shows the lowest impact on entr...
Thank you !
   ¡ Muchas gracias !


Juan A. Moriano
E-mail: jamoriano@psi.uned.es
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Predicting Entrepreneurial Intention Presentation

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Interest in entrepreneurship is growing in many countries due to the close link between new venture creation and economic development (Reynolds, Bygrave, Autio, Cox and Hay, 2002). From a psychological standpoint, the entrepreneurship research resorts to psychosocial variables, such as motivations, personality traits, attitudes, abilities, and others, to account for the entrepreneurial behavior. Psychological literature has shown that intentions are the best predictor of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1991). Venture creation emerges over time and involves a considerable planning, making entrepreneurship a type of planned behavior (Bird, 1988; Katz and Gartner, 1988; Krueger, Reilly and Carsrud, 2000) for which intention models are ideally suited.
In this study the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1991) is the framework to explain the entrepreneurial intention. A sample of 2195 Spanish students (57.9% female), with an average age of 22 years and currently facing important career decisions, filled out a survey with different scales tapping intentions, attitudes, social norms and self-efficacy.
Relationships between attitudes, social norms, self-efficacy and entrepreneurial intention were examined through SEM (Structural Equation Modeling). Although, only 13.5% of the students showed more intention to work as self-employees than as employees, attitudes, subjective norms and self-efficacy explained about 25% of the variance of entrepreneurial intention, thus confirming the validity of the proposed model.

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  1. 1. The XII. European Congress of Work and Organizational Psychology PREDICTING ENTREPRENEURIAL INTENTION FROM THE THEORY OF PLANNED BEHAVIOR Juan A. Moriano, José F. Morales & Francisco J. Palací Department of Social and Organizational Psychology Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia (UNED) ISTAMBUL 13th MAY 2005
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION The study of entrepreneurship within Psychology field is characterized by: • A lot of descriptive and partial studies  “Entrepreneurial Personality” • These studies have received several methodological and theoretical critiques (Baron, 2002; Gartner, 1988; Robinson, Stimpson, Huefner y Hunt, 1991; Shane y Venkataraman, 2000; Shaver y Scott, 1991) • Lack of solid theories that consolidate the previous studies Therefore comes the necessity to go deeper into the study of entrepreneurship and to apply models from Social Psychology field. These models need to take into account not only the personal characteristics, but also the social variables and the interaction between them in order to explain and predict entrepreneurial behavior.
  3. 3. WORK GOALS To analyze the applicability of a Social Psychology Model in order to explain and predict the entrepreneurial intention Subjective Attitudes Self-Efficacy Norms Entrepreneurial Intention
  4. 4. THEORETICAL REVIEW ENTREPRENEURIAL INTENTION Entrepreneurship is the type of planned behavior for which intention models are ideally suitable (Bird, 1988; Katz and Gartner, 1988) INTENTION MODELS: • Shapero’s Model of the “Entrepreneurial Event” (SEE) (Shapero, 1975) • Model of Implementing Entrepreneurial Ideas (Bird, 1988) • The Expectancy Theory Model (Vesalainen and Pihkala, 1999) • The Utility Maximization Model of Career Choice (Douglas, 2002) • Theory of Planned Behavior (Ajzen, 1991)
  5. 5. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK Theory of Planned Behavior (Ajzen, 1991) Attitude Subjectiv e Norm Intention Behavior Perceived Behavior al Control Regression Coefficients Adjusted R² Study Subjective Entrepreneurial Attitude PBC Norm Intention Tkachev & Kolvereid (1999) .11* .28* .44* .45 Autio et al. (2001) .24*** .02* .36*** .30
  6. 6. METHOD Participants  The sample size was 2190 Spanish students  41.1% were men and 57.9% were women  The average age was 22 years old  The students were mostly university students (63.3%) and technical college students (26.8%)  Most of the participants were unemployed and dedicated only to their studies (84.5%)
  7. 7. METHOD Measures  Personal data: Gender, age, level of education and work situation  Entrepreneurial intention a) Direct measure What is your career intention? (in a scale from 1 to 10) a) Start your own business or work on your own b) Work as an employee in a private company c) Work as a government employee f) Indirect measure A scale consisted of 6 items which evaluate in an indirect way the entrepreneurial intention. For example, “I have a specific idea for starting a new venture”
  8. 8. METHOD Measures  Attitudes scales  General attitude towards Self-Employment  Attitude funtions of Self-Employment (Grande, 2001)  Specific attitudes towards: Achievement, Innovation, Independence, Change, Risk and Salary (EAO, Robinson et al., 1991) 2. Subjective Norm a) Social legitimacy of Entrepreneurship b) Social Support c) Entrepreneurship Support from the Educational Center 3. Perceived Behavioral Control Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy Scale (De Noble, Jung, Ehrlich, 1999)
  9. 9. RESULTS: ENTREPRENEURIAL INTENTION • The entrepreneurial intention obtained the lowest average score. • Only 13.5% of the participants have higher intention of working as self-employed than as employed. Figure 1. Career Intention Entrepreneur 5.24 Career Intention Government Employee 5.98 Employee in private 7.69 company 4 5 6 7 8 Note. 10-point scale ranging from 1 (not interested) to 10 (totally interested). *** Mean differences significant at p < .001 • Differences between men and women: a) Men: Higher entrepreneurial intention b) Women: Higher intention to work in a private company or for the government 18.5% of the men prefer to become an entrepreneur in compare with 9.8% of the women
  10. 10. RESULTS: ATTITUDES Correlation with Reliability Variable Factors Items Mean SD Entrepreneurial Coefficients Intention Government General attitude 3 .64 4.01 0.65 .170** level towards Self- Employment People level 2 .51 3.56 0.72 .259** Personal 8 .73 3.85 0.48 .229** development Community Attitude funtions 3 .44 3.61 0.55 .100** contribution of Self- Employment Disadvantages 6 .56 3.50 0.43 .084** Social status 3 .57 3.10 0.76 .084** Achievement 6 .59 4.02 0.43 .087** Innovation 5 .56 3.76 0.52 .177** Independence 5 .59 3.21 0.61 .154** Specific attitudes Risk 4 .41 3.34 0.63 .154** Initiative 2 .32 3.48 0.79 .187** Salary 5 .60 3.16 0.70 .068** Note. 5-point scale ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree) ** Coefficients significant at p < .01
  11. 11. RESULTS: SUBJECTIVE NORM Correlation with Reliability Variable Factors Items Mean SD Entrepreneurial Coefficients Intention Social legitimacy of - 2 - 3.21 0.93 .071** Entrepreneurship Family 3 .75 4.16 0.81 .191** Social Support Friends and 3 .60 3.67 0.56 .099** professors Entrepreneurial Encouraging 3 .75 1.96 0.87 .165** Support from Educational Centers Activities 2 .54 1.76 0.75 .062** Note. 5-point scale ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree) ** Coefficients significant at p < .01
  12. 12. RESULTS: PERCEIVED BEHAVIORAL CONTROL Correlation with Reliability Variable Factors Items Mean SD entrepreneurial Coefficients intention Developing new 4 .75 3.15 0.59 .205** products Initiating investor 6 .75 3.39 0.53 .189** relationships Developing critical 4 .68 3.15 0.65 .132** human resources Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy Building an innovative 3 .66 3.38 0.60 .191** environment Defining core 4 .58 3.32 0.73 .177** porpose Coping with unexpected 2 .40 3.01 0.65 .179** changes Note. 5-point scale ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree) ** Coefficients significant at p < .01
  13. 13. STRUCTURAL EQUATION MODELING Figure 2. Intention model from Theory of Planned Behavior THEORY OF PLANNED BEHAVIOR (TPB) e1 AG ,65 ,66 General res1 e2 AP attitude ID Model Fit ,16 e3 ,80 ,73 e4 ES ,13 -,17 ,27 Attitude Indexes: RMR (.03), GFI (.93), AGFI (.91) and e5 IN ,50 funtions ,87 ATTITUDE e6 CC RMSEA (.04) -,27 e7 LP ,59 res2 ,88 e8 IT ,63 ,16 e9 IL Specific ,32 Standardized Regression Weights ,40 attitudes ,24 res5 e10 CR ,39 Attitude: .32 *** e11 INI res3 .27 ,46 Subjective Norm: .15 * ,15 INTENTION e13 NF ,55 Perceived Behavioral Control: .21 ** e14 CP ,60 SUBJECTIVE NORM ,52 ,78 ,17 IE IA e15 AA ,19 ,21 ,36 e16 EA Explained Variance by the Model ,23 e23 e24 e17 DP 27% of entrepreneurial intention variance e18 IR ,67 ,74 e19 RH ,58 PERCEIVED ,61 BEHAVIORAL e20 EI CONTROL ,62 ,30 e21 LC ,49 * p<.05 ** p <.01 *** p < .001 e22 TE
  14. 14. STRUCTURAL EQUATION MODELING THEORY OF REASONED ACTION (TRA) Figure 3. Intention model from Theory of Reasoned Action e1 AG ,66 Modelo Fit ,66 General res1 e2 AP Attitude Indexes: RMR (.04), GFI (.95), AGFI (.93) ,16 e3 ID ,79 ,75 e4 ES ,12 and RMSEA (.04) -,27 -,17 ,28 Attitude e5 IN Funtions ,51 ,88 ATTITUDE e6 CC e7 LP ,59 Standardized Regression Weights ,63 res2 ,87 ,33 res5 e8 IT Attitudes: .33 *** e9 IL ,16 Specific .18 ,40 Attitude Subjective Norm: .21 ** e10 CR ,39 ,24 INTENTION e11 INI ,21 res3 ,42 ,96 Explained Variance by the Model e13 NF ,57 IE IA ,58 SUBJECTIVE 18% of entrepreneurial intention e14 CP ,15 NORM e23 e24 variance ,36 e15 AA ,18 e16 EA * p<.05 ** p <.01 *** p < .001
  15. 15. RESULTS: MULTIPLE-GROUP ANALYSIS DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MEN AND WOMEN Model Fit for Men Group Model Fit for Women Group Indexes: RMR (.04), GFI (.89), AGFI (.87) y Indexes : RMR (.03), GFI (.95), AGFI (.94) y RMSEA (.05) RMSEA (.04) Standardized Regression Weights Standardized Regression Weights Attitudes: .32 *** Attitudes: .34 *** Subjective Norm: .18 * Subjective Norm: .18 ** Perceived Behavioral Control: .20 ** Perceived Behavioral Control: .14 * Explained Variance by the Model Explained Variance by the Model 31% of entrepreneurial intention variance 24% of entrepreneurial intention variance * p<.05 ** p <.01 *** p < .001
  16. 16. CONCLUSIONS How is the entrepreneurial intention of Spanish students? • The participating Spanish students have low entrepreneurial intention in general. Their favorite occupational choice is to work in a private company. Is the Theory of Planned Behavior able to explain entrepreneurial intention? • The model proposed by the TPB explains 27% of the variance in the entrepreneurial intention. • The alternative model proposed by the TRA explains only 18% of the variance in the entrepreneurial intention. • The TPB model was validated in groups of men and women. However, the explained variance of entrepreneurial intention was bigger in men group. What is the best predictor of entrepreneurial intention? • Attitude is the most influential component with the biggest impact on the entrepreneurial intention in every group (women and men)
  17. 17. CONCLUSIONS How is the subjective norm towards entrepreneurial behavior? • This variable shows the lowest impact on entrepreneurial intention • There is a low social legitimacy of entrepreneurship in Spain. • Social support has a positive effect on the entrepreneurial intention. Especially, when this support comes from the family. • Entrepreneurship Support from the Educational Center has a positive effect as well. However, the participating students indicate that there is not enough encouragement for the entrepreneurship as an occupational choice in their educational centers. How is the Perceived Behavioral Control? • Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy is an important predictor of entrepreneurial intention. • If this component is eliminated from the model then the entrepreneurial intention explained variance goes down from 27% to 18%. • This variable has a bigger impact on entrepreneurial intention in men group than in women group.
  18. 18. Thank you ! ¡ Muchas gracias ! Juan A. Moriano E-mail: jamoriano@psi.uned.es
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