STI Policies Highlights


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Highlights from common practicies of Science, Technology and Innovation (STI) Policies

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  • - Story: Problem Identification- Story: Innovation / Change
  •^ Freeman, C. (1995), “The National System of Innovation in Historical Perspective”, Cambridge Journal of Economics, No. 19, pp. 5–24^ Lundvall, B-Å. (ed.) (1992). National Innovation Systems: Towards a Theory of Innovation and Interactive Learning, Pinter, London.^ Nelson, R. (ed.) (1993), National Innovation Systems. A Comparative Analysis, Oxford University Press, New York/Oxford.^ Patel, P. and K. Pavitt (1994), “The Nature and Economic Importance of National Innovation Systems”, STI Review, No. 14, OECD, Paris.^ Metcalfe, S. (1995), “The Economic Foundations of Technology Policy: Equilibrium and Evolutionary Perspectives”, in P. Stoneman (ed.), Handbook of the Economics of Innovation and Technological Change, Blackwell Publishers, Oxford (UK)/Cambridge (US).
  • STI Policies Highlights

    1. 1. Highlights
    2. 2.  Highlights◦ Innovation◦ Science and Innovation◦ National Innovation System◦ Best practices in STI policies◦ Indicators and measures
    3. 3.  Oslo Manual defines innovation as theimplementation of a new or significantlyimproved product (good or service), orprocess, a new marketing method, or a neworganisational method in businesspractices, workplace organisation or externalrelations.3rd ed. Oslo Manual – Guidelines for Collecting and Interpreting InnovationData, OECD, Paris, 2005
    4. 4.  Innovation means technologies or practices thatare new to a given society. They are notnecessarily new in absolute terms. Thesetechnologies or practices are being diffused inthat economy or society. This point is important:what is not disseminated and used is not aninnovation. Dissemination is very significant andrequires particular attention in low- andmedium-income countries. Innovation is distinct from research and in factneed not result from it. Innovations come fromthe entrepreneurs who make them happen andultimately depend on a society’s receptiveness.Source: Innovation Policy A Guide for Developing Countries, The world Bank, 2010
    5. 5. ProblemRecognitionProblemSolving(Invention)SolutionExploitationInnovationCopyrights © 2012 Jamil Alkhatib 6"Anything that wont sell, I dont want to invent."Thomas Edison
    6. 6. MoneyKnowledgeCopyrights © 2011 Jamil AlkhatibInnovationR&D
    7. 7.  .. the network of institutions in the public and private sectors whoseactivities and interactions initiate, import, modify and diffuse newtechnologies.[1] .. the elements and relationships which interact in theproduction, diffusion and use of new, and economicallyuseful, knowledge ... and are either located within or rooted inside theborders of a nation state.[2] ... a set of institutions whose interactions determine the innovativeperformance ... of national firms.[3] .. the national institutions, their incentive structures and theircompetencies, that determine the rate and direction of technologicallearning (or the volume and composition of change generating activities)in a country.[4] .. that set of distinct institutions which jointly and individually contributeto the development and diffusion of new technologies and whichprovides the framework within which governments form and implementpolicies to influence the innovation process. As such it is a system ofinterconnected institutions to create, store and transfer theknowledge, skills and artefacts which define new technologies.[5]Source: 2012... a set of institutions whoseinteractions determine theinnovative performance ... ofnational firms.
    8. 8. Source: Innovation Policy A Guide for Developing Countries, The world Bank, 2010
    9. 9. Source: Innovation Policy A Guide for Developing Countries, The world Bank, 2010
    10. 10. OECD Innovation Strategy is built around fivepriorities for government action: empowering people to innovate; unleashing innovation in firms; creating and applying knowledge; applying innovation to address global andsocial challenges; and improving the governance and measurementof policies for innovation.
    11. 11.  Policy needs to address:◦ Knowledge supply◦ Interactions between different players◦ Ability of firms to learn◦ Institutional design◦ Management of demand side◦ Technology acquisition, imitation and adaptationSource: A Framework For Science, Technology and Innovation Policy Reviews, UnitedNations Conference on Trade And Development UNCTAD, 2011
    12. 12. 1. Government efforts in the 1960s and 1970s were largelyinspired by a linear model of innovation and the idea thatscience and research needed to be pushed towardtechnological and industrial applications; many policyinitiatives therefore aimed at supporting enterprises intheir R&D efforts or at improving university industrycollaboration.2. a second generation in which innovation policy becamemore complex and aimed at facilitating interactionsbetween the various actors and institutions involved ininnovation processes: universities, researchlaboratories, banks for venture capital, and governmentagencies in charge of various sectors.3. A third generation of innovation policy has appeared. It isinspired by a “whole-of government” approach, in whichall departments are potentially concerned.Source: Innovation Policy A Guide for Developing Countries, The world Bank, 2010
    13. 13. Plantation RainforestA different approach to innovation growth…
    14. 14. A new book by Victor W. Hwang and Greg Horowitt, 2011
    15. 15. Developed bottom upwith top down support
    16. 16. http://jamil.alkhatib.me