Grammar book 2


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Grammar book 2

  1. 1. Grammar Book 2nd Semester BY: JAMILA MILLER 3RD
  2. 2.  Conditional  Nosotros Command Perfect Tenses  Mono Verbs  Present  Present Perfect Irregulars  Past  Subjunctive + Irregulars  Subjunctive Perfect  Trigger Phrases  Impersonal Expressions Impersonal „se‟  Expressions of Emotion Saber vs. Conocer  Conjunctions of Time Los Mandadtos  Informal/Formal  Demonstrative Adjectives + • Affirmative Pronouns • Negative  Tan y Tanto • Irregular • DOP + IOP
  3. 3. Conditional Conjugation English Translation  ía  íamos  Used in relation to  ías  íais would, should, could, must have, or probably  ía  ían  Used to express:  Wonder ConjugationInfinitivo at end Subjunctive  Conjecture  Possibility  Probability
  4. 4. Conditional Irregulars Irregular form • ía íamos • ías íais + the endings • ía ían = Conditional irregulares
  5. 5. Present Perfect Used to express or describe actions that have happened recently and/or actions that still hold true in the present. Haber is used as auxillary verb before the main verb like a helping In Ingles verb in English. He hemos The combination of a helping verb as in English. Ex: I have eaten. Has Habeis He comido. ha han Plus the main verb with new ending Ar- ado Er- ido Ir- idoAuxillary Main Presentverb (to verb + perfect have) ido o ado verb He pagado la cuenta. He pagado
  6. 6. Present Perfect Irregulars Abrir- abierto  Poner- puesto Cubrir- cubierto  Resolver- resolto Decir- dicho  Ver- visto Escribir- escrito  Volver- vuelto Hacer- hecho  Ir- ido Morir- muerto  Romper- roto
  7. 7. Past Perfect • The past perfect tense is • The past perfect is formed by using the formed by combining the imperfect tense of the auxiliary verb "had" with auxiliary verb "haber" the past participle. with the past participle. Había habíamos Habías HabíasEx: (yo) Había vivido. Ex: Juan había abierto I had lived. había habían las puertas. Plus the main verb with new ending Ar- ado Er- ido Ir- ido
  8. 8. Subjunctive Perfect We use the present perfect subjunctive when we want to express a reaction to something that has happened (already). We need a conjugation of the verb Haber and a past participle. The only difference is that we conjugate Haber in the present Subjunctive. Haya hayamos Hayas Hayáis haya Hayan Plus the main verb with new ending Ar- ado Er- ido Ir- ido
  9. 9. Impersonal „se‟ 1. Use se to avoid specifying a person who is doing the action of the verb.  Se vende fruta en la fruteria. 2. When using se, the verb is always in 3rd person.  Aqui se había español. 3. Se can be used in all tenses.  Se hizo mucho  Se haría mucho.  Se había hecho.
  10. 10. Saber vs. Conocerfacts, info, Person, or how to place, do literarysomething work
  11. 11. Mandatos Informales Tu Commands Affirmitivo Negativo Regular Irregular Regular Irregular Put in the yo form,Conjugate in the tu Put in the tu form, changes to the Tv dishes and addform and drop the stem change, and the “s” opposite vowel “s” drop the “s” and add on the “S” Or put the yo Add pronoun if Di, hav, ve, pon, Place pronoun form, change to necessary sal, se, ten, ven before the verb the appropriate ”s”
  12. 12. Informal MandatosINFORMAL (TU) AR ER/IRAffirmitive: ______- A ______- eConjugate the verb in the3rd person present Hablar: habla Comer: come(ud./el/ella)Negative: No- ______- EN No- ______- ANYo form, drop the O andadd the opposite tú Hablar: No hablen Comer: No comanending Informal Commands Irregulars Decir: Di Salir: sal Hacer: Haz Tener: ten Ir: ve Venir: ven Poner: pon
  13. 13. Formal MandatosFORMAL AR ER/IRUsted/ Ud. ______- E ______- A Yo form of a verb, dropthe O and add the Hablar: hable Comer: Comaopposite endings:Ustedes/ Uds. ______- EN ______- AN Yo form of a verb,drop the O and add the Hablar: hablen Comer: Comanopposite ending of thethird plural form: Formal Commands Irregulars1. GO to GA (present tense irregular Yo 2. CAR, GAR, ZAR verbs require form verbs) spelling changes to keep the Vengo- venga pronunciation consistent: Digo- diga Pagar- pague
  14. 14. DOP and IOP Placement DOP IOPLo, la, los, las Me, te, se, nos, osIr + Infinitive Estar + ing Commands• Attach to the verb • Affirmative: it is end of the • Attach to the attached to the infinitive end of command end of –ing verb with an accent on• Place in front of and add an first syllable vowel the conjugated accent to the 3rd verb • Negative: it comes to the last after “no”, before syllable vowel the command
  15. 15. Nosotros Commands Yo form of the verb in present tense, drop the O and add the opposite nosotros form ending: Ar Er/Ir ____-Emos ____-AmosHablar: Hablemos Comer: comamos
  16. 16. Mono Verbs 1) if object pronouns are used, they must be attached to the end of affirmative commands, and this will always require a written accent in the nosotros forms 2) the first s of the affirmative reflexive ending is lost Irregulars  Ex: ¡Comamos afuera esta noche! Are similar to that of other commands including –car, -gar, -zar… Another irregular: Vámonos- vayamos
  17. 17. Start with the yo form of thepresent indicative Present Subjunctive Impersonal Reflects ExpressionsThen drop the o- Will and influence, Es bueno que… ending Mood motion, doubt, Es mejor que… Uncertain disbelief, and Es importante hypothetical denial, que… indefiniteness, and Then add the nonexistense Es malo que… opposite vowel ending. Es necessario que… Main Clause Subjuntive (impersonal Que Main clause sentence expression)
  18. 18. T V D I S H E STener > Venir> Decir> diga Ir > vaya Ser > sea Hacer > Estar > esté Saber > sepatenga venga Dar> dé haga car que Irregulares gar gue Stem changing -stays the same in –ar or –er zar ce - Does not change in nosotros form Ir stem changes in nosotros
  19. 19. Trigger PhrasesThe impersonal phrases come before the subjunctive and the time phrases come after the independent clause to indicate when to use a subjunctive. Es Es necesario bueno que… que… …asi que …cuando Impersonal Es mejor …despues Expressions que… Conjunctions of Time de que Es malo Es que… importan …en …hasta te que… cuanto que
  20. 20.  I. Verbs/expressions of will or want  II. Verbs/expressions of emotion or  aconsejar que to advise feeling  decir que to tell  alegrarse de que to be happy that  dejar que to let, allow  es bueno que its good that  desear que to desire that  es conveniente que its convenient  es hora que its time that that  es importante que it is important  es difícil que its hard that  es extraño que its strange that  es necesario que it is necessary  es fácil que its easy that  es increíble que its incredible that  esperar que to hope that  es inútil que its useless that (theres  es preciso que it is necessary that no point) es justo que its fair that  evitar que to avoid  Frequently, the sentences that contain a subjunctive verb are used to express doubt, uncertainty, denial, desire, commands or reactions to the clause containing the subjunctive verb.
  21. 21.  III. Verbs/expressions of doubt, possibility, opinion First Clause: Second  aparecer que to appear, seem Expressions Clause that • hope • Subordinate  buscar ... que* to look for • Fear clause  detestar que to hate • Joy  dudar que to doubt • Pity  es dudoso que it is doubtful that • Surprise  es imposible que it is impossible that  es improbable que it is improbable that  es posible que it is possible that  es probable que it is probable that
  22. 22. Demonstrative Adjectives and PronounsSingular Plural Singular PluralMasculine Masculine Feminine FeminimeÉste (this) Éstos (these) Ésta (this) Éstas (these)Ése (that) Ésos (those) Ésa (that) Ésas (those)Aquél (that “over Aquéllos (those Aquélla (that “over Aquéllas (thosethere”) “over there”) there”) “over there”
  23. 23. Tan y TantoComo (as…as) Como (as much as/ as many as… Used withadjectives and Used with adverbs nouns and verbs