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Grammar book 2

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  • 1. By: Jamila miller
    3rd
    Grammar Book 2nd Semester
  • 2. TABLE OF CONTENTS
    Conditional
    Perfect Tenses
    Present
    Present Perfect Irregulars
    Past
    Subjunctive Perfect
    Nosotros Command
    Mono Verbs
  • Conjugation
    English Translation
    ía
    ías
    ía
    Used in relation to would, should, could, must have, or probably
    Used to express:
    Wonder
    Conjecture
    Possibility
    Probability
    Conditional
    íamos
    íais
    ían
  • 17. Conditional Irregulars
  • 18. Present Perfect
    Used to express or describe actions that have happened recently and/or actions that still hold true in the present.
    He pagado la cuenta. He pagado
  • 19. Present Perfect Irregulars
    Abrir- abierto
    Cubrir- cubierto
    Decir- dicho
    Escribir- escrito
    Hacer- hecho
    Morir- muerto
    Poner- puesto
    Resolver- resolto
    Ver- visto
    Volver- vuelto
    Ir- ido
    Romper- roto
  • 20. Past Perfect
    Ex: Juan habíaabiertolaspuertas.
    Ex: (yo) Habíavivido.
    I had lived.
  • 21. Subjunctive Perfect
    We use the present perfect subjunctive when we want to express a reaction to something that has happened (already). We need a conjugation of the verb Haber and a past participle. The only difference is that we conjugate Haber in the present Subjunctive.
  • 22. Impersonal ‘se’
    1. Use se to avoid specifying a person who is doing the action of the verb.
    Se vendefruta en la fruteria.
    2. When using se, the verb is always in 3rd person.
    Aqui se habíaespañol.
    3. Se can be used in all tenses.
    Se hizo mucho
    Se haría mucho.
    Se habíahecho.
  • 23. Saber vs. Conocer
    To Know:
  • 24. MandatosInformalesTu Commands
  • 25. Informal Mandatos
  • 26. Formal Mandatos
  • 27. DOP and IOP Placement
  • 28. Nosotros Commands
  • 29. Mono Verbs
    1) if object pronouns are used, they must be attached to the end of affirmative commands, and this will always require a written accent in the nosotros forms
    2) the first s of the affirmative reflexive ending is lost
    Ex: ¡Comamosafueraestanoche!
  • 30.
  • 31.
  • 32. Trigger Phrases
    Impersonal Expressions vs. Conjunctions of Time
    The impersonal phrases come before the subjunctive and the time phrases come after the independent clause to indicate when to use a subjunctive.
  • 33. Expressions of Emotion
    Trigger Phrases
    • II. Verbs/expressions of emotion or feeling
    • 34. alegrarse de que to be happy that
    • 35. esbuenoque it's good that
    • 36. esconvenienteque it's convenient that
    • 37. esdifícilque it's hard
    • 38. esextrañoque it's strange that
    • 39. esfácilque it's easy
    • 40. esincreíbleque it's incredible that
    • 41. esinútilque it's useless that (there's no point) esjustoque it's fair that
    I. Verbs/expressions of will or want
    aconsejarque to advise
    decirque to tell
    dejarque to let, allow
    desearque to desire that
    eshoraque it's time that
    esimportanteque it is important that
    esnecesarioque it is necessary that
    esperarque to hope that
    esprecisoque it is necessary that
    evitarque to avoid
    • Frequently, the sentences that contain a subjunctive verb are used to express doubt, uncertainty, denial, desire, commands or reactions to the clause containing the subjunctive verb.
  • Expressions of Emotion Cont.
    Trigger Phrases Cont.
    III. Verbs/expressions of doubt, possibility, opinion
    aparecerque to appear, seem that
    buscar ... que* to look for
    detestarque to hate
    dudarque to doubt
    esdudosoque it is doubtful that
    esimposibleque it is impossible that
    es improbable que it is improbable that
    esposibleque it is possible that
    es probable que it is probable that
  • 42. Demonstrative Adjectives and Pronouns
  • 43. Tan y Tanto