Presentation on memory


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Presentation on memory

  1. 1. Presented to Md. Rifat Ahmmad Rashid, Lecturer, Department of CIS, Bangladesh University of Business & Technology
  2. 2. Presented by 1. name I.D. No. 1011310…. 2. name I.D. No. 1011310….
  3. 3. Overview Introduction Computer capacity Types of memory Main memory Types of main memory Types of main memory device Secondary memory Types of secondary memory device Important Secondary Storage Methods Secondary storage devices Hard disks Some regular usable discs Other types of secondary storage References
  4. 4. Introduction Memory is a device that is used to store data or programs on a temporary or permanent basis for use in an electronic digital computer. The memory is needed for the following purposes: 1. To store the program and data during execution 2. To store the program for repetitive use 3. To store the data for future or periodical use 4. To store the result of execution
  5. 5. Computer capacity Bit: Short for binary digit (0s and 1s), the only data that a CPU(Central Processing Unit) can process. Byte: An 8-bit string of data, needed to represent any one alphanumeric character or simple mathematical operation.
  6. 6. Types of memory There are three categories of computer memories: Main Memory (Primary Memory) stores small amounts of data and information that will be immediately used by the CPU (Central Processing Unit). Secondary Memory (Auxiliary or Backup) stores much larger amounts of data and information (an entire software program, for example) for extended periods of time. Internal Processor Memory stores temporary storage of instruction and data used as working registers.
  7. 7. Main memory Main memory is a large array of data or bytes. It provides storage that can be access directly by the CPU. Major activity of main memory: 1. Keep track of which part of memory currently being used and by whom. 2. Decide which process are loaded into memory when memory space becomes available. 3. Allocate reallocate memory space as needed.
  8. 8. Types of main memory Semiconductor Memory Semiconductor memory uses semiconductor-based integrated circuits to store information. Both volatile and non-volatile forms of semiconductor memory exist. Magnetic Memory Magnetic storage uses different patterns of magnetization on a magnetically coated surface to store information. Magnetic storage is non-volatile.
  9. 9. Types of main memory device Main Memory ROM RAM Cache Register
  10. 10. Random access memory (RAM): The part of primary storage that holds a software program and small amounts of data when they are brought from secondary storage. Rams are categorised as follows: – SRAM (Static RAM) (flip-flop gates) – DRAM (Dynamic RAM) Types of Main Memory Device
  11. 11. Read-only memory (ROM): Type of primary storage where certain critical instructions are safeguarded; the storage is nonvolatile and retains the instructions when the power to the computer is turned off. ROMs are categorised as follows: – PROM (programmable) – EPROM (erasable programmable) – EEPROM (electronically erasable programmable) Types of Main Memory Device
  12. 12. Types of Main Memory Device Cache memory: A type of primary storage where the computer can temporarily store blocks of data used more often. Register: registers are part of the CPU with the least capacity, storing extremely limited amounts of instructions and data only immediately before and after processing.
  13. 13. Secondary Memory Memory capacity that can store very large amounts of data for extended periods of time. – It is nonvolatile. – It takes much more time to retrieve data because of the electromechanical nature. – It is cheaper than primary storage. – It can take place on a variety of media – It is permanent memory
  14. 14. Secondary Storage Magnetic Tape Magnetic Disk CD-ROM Hard Disk Floppy Disk Types of Secondary Storage Device
  15. 15. • Magnetic Disk Drive • Floppy Disk Drive • Magnetic Tape Drive • Optical Disk Drive Important Secondary Storage Methods
  16. 16. Most desktop microcomputer systems have floppy disks, hard disks optical disk drives and High Capacity Floppy Disks. Secondary Storage Devices High Capacity Floppy Disks
  17. 17. There are three types of hard disks: – Internal – Hard-disk cartridge – Hard-disk pack Hard Disks Hard-disk cartridge
  18. 18. Some regular usable discs Traditional Floppy Disk Optical Disks Compact Disc
  19. 19. Other Types of Secondary Storage • Solid-state storage  Flash memory cards  Key chain hard drives • Internet hard drives • Magnetic tape
  20. 20. References Norton,P.(2010-2011) “Introduction to Computer”, 9th edition, Tata McGraw-Hill Sarker & Gupta,(2005),“Elements of Computer Science”,2nd edition, S.Chand & Company Ltd. Ahmmad,R.R, Lecturer, Department of CIS, BUBT Memory - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.htm