Social Fabric of Semantics - SemTech 2010

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Vocabulary construction is critical to the success of semantic technologies. Can we learn from communities where practical vocabularies have emerged?

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Social Fabric of Semantics - SemTech 2010

  1. 1. The Social Fabric of Semantics Jamie Taylor, Ph.D.
  2. 2. http://rdf.freebase.com/ns/en.jamie_taylor
  3. 3. Explicit Semantics in Surprising Places
  4. 4. microformats HTML5 MicroData Open Graph Protocol RDFa
  5. 5. We have overlooked the human “stack”
  6. 6. The Crisis of Vocabulary Much formal analysis of knowledge representation Little guidance on what actually works
  7. 7. education nationality contained-by education member-of event albums label contained-by contains member-of The arrangement of entities in a graph is not predetermined by a higher being
  8. 8. contains contained-by event member-of nationality education albums Vocabulary is a social process
  9. 9. Semantics: To communicate meaning, resulting in an action Or at least so Blue Guy can write code that responds to the graph in a way consistent with Red Guy's expectations
  10. 10. Vocabulary "All the types of things you can say about something"
  11. 11. http://rdf.freebase.com/ns/en.paul_david_hewson
  12. 12. Alison Hewson EDUN Mount Temple Comprehensive School May 10, 1960 U2 Million Dollar Hotel End of Violence Elevation Partners Show 8 Dublin spouse date of birth founder performer education founder producerperform er bornin memberof Semantics are in the Links
  13. 13. Alison Hewson EDUN Mount Temple Comprehensive School May 10, 1960 U2 Million Dollar Hotel End of Violence Elevation Partners Show 8 Dublin spouse date of birth founder performer education founder producerperform er bornin memberof Semantics are in the Links
  14. 14. Do you understand the words that are coming out of my mouth?
  15. 15. The Twitter Vocabulary @ # Short URLs
  16. 16. Pivot on @
  17. 17. Pivot on Short URL
  18. 18. Pivot on #
  19. 19. #
  20. 20. Broadcast: U(n) = n
  21. 21. Telephone: Metcalfe's Law U(n) = n2
  22. 22. Group Network Formation: Reed's Law U(n) = 2n
  23. 23. Reed's Law N Value N N^2 2^N
  24. 24. N Value N N2 2N Broadcast Email Chatrooms
  25. 25. N Value N N2 2N Tweets #tagsFeeds #tags are a USER invention!
  26. 26. N Value N N2 2N Folksonomy ???Ontology
  27. 27. Twannotations Tweets have "type" Name/Value Structure What's the vocabulary? •Anything you want •Lead by example
  28. 28. Vocabulary and Visibility Pros: Feedback, Incentive, Training, Convergence
  29. 29. Vocabulary and Visibility Cons: Usage for side effects
  30. 30. Lessons from everyday vocabulary Wikipedia Word Frequency 0 2000000 4000000 6000000 8000000 10000000 12000000 14000000 16000000 18000000 20000000 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Rank Frequency Data from Victor S. Grishchenko
  31. 31. Zipf’s Law ! Plot by Victor Grishchenko
  32. 32. Zipf’s Explanation Law of Least Effort: Use a few common words to communicate main concept Use a few rare words to disambiguate concepts Satisficing
  33. 33. 535,393 Categories 2k French Films
  34. 34. 17 films
  35. 35. Schema Principle #1 Use Types Liberally: Use a few large, encompassing Types to provide general information Use several smaller, fine grained Types to provide detailed information
  36. 36. The Freebase Commons ·American football ·Internet ·Anime/Manga ·Language ·Architecture ·Law ·Astronomy ·Library ·Automotive ·Location ·Aviation ·Martial Arts ·Awards ·Measurement Unit ·Baseball ·Media Common ·Basketball ·Medicine ·Bicycles ·Metaweb Types ·Biology ·Meteorology ·Boats ·Military ·Broadcast ·Music ·Business ·Olympics ·Celebrities ·Opera ·Chemistry ·Organization ·Comics ·People ·Common ·Geography ·Computers ·Projects ·Conferences ·Protected Places ·Cricket ·Publishing ·Data World ·Radio ·Digicams ·Rail ·Education ·Religion ·Engineering ·Royalty ·Event ·Soccer ·Clothing and Textiles ·Spaceflight ·Fictional Universes ·Sports ·Film ·Symbols ·Food & Drink ·Tennis ·Freebase ·Theater ·Games ·Time ·Geology ·Transportation ·Government ·Travel ·Hobbies and Interests ·TV ·Ice Hockey ·Video Games ·Influence ·Visual Art Top-level domains schema = vocabulary
  37. 37. Ontologies you design will be too complicated because almost all people will use a small subset of it Ontologies you design will be too simple because there will be a long tail of users who will want to express something you didn’t cover --Colin Evans (Metaweb) Solution: • Provide a core • Let the community tune the specifics to their needs
  38. 38. What is a Politician?
  39. 39. Schema Principle #2 Avoid Types which "carve out" categories of things
  40. 40. "Original TV Program" • Is a TV Program • Isn't an adaptation of a film • Isn't an adaptation of a book • Isn't an adaptation of a play • Wasn't spun off from another TV Program • Hasn't spun off any other TV Programs
  41. 41. "Original TV Program" [{   "name": null,   "type": "/tv/tv_program",   "b:type": {     "id":       "/media_common/adaptation",     "optional": "forbidden"   },   "spun_off_from": [{     "id":       null,     "optional": "forbidden"   }],   "spin_offs": [{     "id":       null,     "optional": "forbidden"   }] }] Show as Two Views not a MQL query
  42. 42. Principle #2 Corollary Strive for bright lines between Types • Let queries and simple types do the work • Better, easier to maintain data quality
  43. 43. What are you sitting on? Chair Furniture Folding Chair Natural Category Added Features? What does one look like? Eleanor Rosch
  44. 44. HTML5 MicroData Open Graph Protocol #
  45. 45. Addendum
  46. 46. Social Network Analysis Resources Wikipedia Jon Kleinberg http://www.cs.cornell.edu/home/kleinber Twitter Kwak et al. WWW2010 http://an.kaist.ac.kr/traces/WWW2010.html
  47. 47. Modeling Resources McGuinness & Noy's Ontologies 101 Attend when possible! http://ksl.stanford.edu/people/dlm/papers/ontology101 Toward Principles for the Design of Ontologies Used for Knowledge Sharing http://tomgruber.org/writing/onto-design.htm Allemang & Hendler Semantic Web for the Working Ontologist

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