Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
The Social Fabric of Semantics
Jamie Taylor, Ph.D.
http://rdf.freebase.com/ns/en.jamie_taylor
Explicit Semantics in
Surprising Places
microformats
HTML5 MicroData
Open Graph Protocol
RDFa
We have overlooked the human “stack”
The Crisis of Vocabulary
Much formal analysis of
knowledge representation
Little guidance on what
actually works
education
nationality
contained-by
education
member-of
event
albums
label
contained-by
contains
member-of
The arrangement ...
contains
contained-by
event
member-of
nationality
education
albums
Vocabulary is a social process
Semantics: To communicate
meaning, resulting in an action
Or at least so Blue Guy can write
code that responds to the grap...
Vocabulary
"All the types of things you
can say about something"
http://rdf.freebase.com/ns/en.paul_david_hewson
Alison Hewson
EDUN
Mount Temple
Comprehensive School
May 10, 1960
U2
Million Dollar Hotel
End of Violence
Elevation Partne...
Alison Hewson
EDUN
Mount Temple
Comprehensive School
May 10, 1960
U2
Million Dollar Hotel
End of Violence
Elevation Partne...
Do you
understand the words
that are coming out of
my mouth?
The Twitter Vocabulary
@
#
Short URLs
Pivot on @
Pivot on Short URL
Pivot on #
#
Broadcast: U(n) = n
Telephone:
Metcalfe's Law
U(n) = n2
Group Network Formation:
Reed's Law
U(n) = 2n
Reed's Law
N
Value
N
N^2
2^N
N
Value
N N2
2N
Broadcast Email Chatrooms
N
Value
N N2
2N
Tweets #tagsFeeds
#tags are a USER invention!
N
Value
N N2
2N
Folksonomy ???Ontology
Twannotations
Tweets have "type"
Name/Value Structure
What's the vocabulary?
•Anything you want
•Lead by example
Vocabulary and Visibility
Pros: Feedback, Incentive, Training, Convergence
Vocabulary and Visibility
Cons: Usage for side effects
Lessons from everyday vocabulary
Wikipedia Word Frequency
0
2000000
4000000
6000000
8000000
10000000
12000000
14000000
160...
Zipf’s Law
!
Plot by Victor Grishchenko
Zipf’s Explanation
Law of Least Effort:
Use a few common words to communicate main concept
Use a few rare words to disambi...
535,393 Categories
2k French Films
17 films
Schema Principle #1
Use Types Liberally:
Use a few large, encompassing Types to
provide general information
Use several sm...
The Freebase Commons
·American football ·Internet
·Anime/Manga ·Language
·Architecture ·Law
·Astronomy ·Library
·Automotiv...
Ontologies you design will be too complicated
because almost all people will use a small
subset of it
Ontologies you desig...
What is a Politician?
Schema Principle #2
Avoid Types which "carve out"
categories of things
"Original TV Program"
• Is a TV Program
• Isn't an adaptation of a film
• Isn't an adaptation of a book
• Isn't an adaptati...
"Original TV Program"
[{
  "name": null,
  "type": "/tv/tv_program",
  "b:type": {
    "id":       "/media_common/adaptati...
Principle #2 Corollary
Strive for bright lines between Types
• Let queries and simple types do the work
• Better, easier t...
What are you sitting on?
Chair
Furniture
Folding Chair
Natural Category
Added
Features?
What does one
look like?
Eleanor R...
HTML5 MicroData
Open Graph Protocol
#
Addendum
Social Network Analysis
Resources
Wikipedia
Jon Kleinberg
http://www.cs.cornell.edu/home/kleinber
Twitter
Kwak et al. WWW2...
Modeling Resources
McGuinness & Noy's Ontologies 101
Attend when possible!
http://ksl.stanford.edu/people/dlm/papers/ontol...
Social Fabric of Semantics - SemTech 2010
Social Fabric of Semantics - SemTech 2010
Social Fabric of Semantics - SemTech 2010
Social Fabric of Semantics - SemTech 2010
Social Fabric of Semantics - SemTech 2010
Social Fabric of Semantics - SemTech 2010
Social Fabric of Semantics - SemTech 2010
Social Fabric of Semantics - SemTech 2010
Social Fabric of Semantics - SemTech 2010
Social Fabric of Semantics - SemTech 2010
Social Fabric of Semantics - SemTech 2010
Social Fabric of Semantics - SemTech 2010
Social Fabric of Semantics - SemTech 2010
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Social Fabric of Semantics - SemTech 2010

745

Published on

Vocabulary construction is critical to the success of semantic technologies. Can we learn from communities where practical vocabularies have emerged?

Published in: Education, Technology
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
745
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
9
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Transcript of "Social Fabric of Semantics - SemTech 2010"

  1. 1. The Social Fabric of Semantics Jamie Taylor, Ph.D.
  2. 2. http://rdf.freebase.com/ns/en.jamie_taylor
  3. 3. Explicit Semantics in Surprising Places
  4. 4. microformats HTML5 MicroData Open Graph Protocol RDFa
  5. 5. We have overlooked the human “stack”
  6. 6. The Crisis of Vocabulary Much formal analysis of knowledge representation Little guidance on what actually works
  7. 7. education nationality contained-by education member-of event albums label contained-by contains member-of The arrangement of entities in a graph is not predetermined by a higher being
  8. 8. contains contained-by event member-of nationality education albums Vocabulary is a social process
  9. 9. Semantics: To communicate meaning, resulting in an action Or at least so Blue Guy can write code that responds to the graph in a way consistent with Red Guy's expectations
  10. 10. Vocabulary "All the types of things you can say about something"
  11. 11. http://rdf.freebase.com/ns/en.paul_david_hewson
  12. 12. Alison Hewson EDUN Mount Temple Comprehensive School May 10, 1960 U2 Million Dollar Hotel End of Violence Elevation Partners Show 8 Dublin spouse date of birth founder performer education founder producerperform er bornin memberof Semantics are in the Links
  13. 13. Alison Hewson EDUN Mount Temple Comprehensive School May 10, 1960 U2 Million Dollar Hotel End of Violence Elevation Partners Show 8 Dublin spouse date of birth founder performer education founder producerperform er bornin memberof Semantics are in the Links
  14. 14. Do you understand the words that are coming out of my mouth?
  15. 15. The Twitter Vocabulary @ # Short URLs
  16. 16. Pivot on @
  17. 17. Pivot on Short URL
  18. 18. Pivot on #
  19. 19. #
  20. 20. Broadcast: U(n) = n
  21. 21. Telephone: Metcalfe's Law U(n) = n2
  22. 22. Group Network Formation: Reed's Law U(n) = 2n
  23. 23. Reed's Law N Value N N^2 2^N
  24. 24. N Value N N2 2N Broadcast Email Chatrooms
  25. 25. N Value N N2 2N Tweets #tagsFeeds #tags are a USER invention!
  26. 26. N Value N N2 2N Folksonomy ???Ontology
  27. 27. Twannotations Tweets have "type" Name/Value Structure What's the vocabulary? •Anything you want •Lead by example
  28. 28. Vocabulary and Visibility Pros: Feedback, Incentive, Training, Convergence
  29. 29. Vocabulary and Visibility Cons: Usage for side effects
  30. 30. Lessons from everyday vocabulary Wikipedia Word Frequency 0 2000000 4000000 6000000 8000000 10000000 12000000 14000000 16000000 18000000 20000000 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Rank Frequency Data from Victor S. Grishchenko
  31. 31. Zipf’s Law ! Plot by Victor Grishchenko
  32. 32. Zipf’s Explanation Law of Least Effort: Use a few common words to communicate main concept Use a few rare words to disambiguate concepts Satisficing
  33. 33. 535,393 Categories 2k French Films
  34. 34. 17 films
  35. 35. Schema Principle #1 Use Types Liberally: Use a few large, encompassing Types to provide general information Use several smaller, fine grained Types to provide detailed information
  36. 36. The Freebase Commons ·American football ·Internet ·Anime/Manga ·Language ·Architecture ·Law ·Astronomy ·Library ·Automotive ·Location ·Aviation ·Martial Arts ·Awards ·Measurement Unit ·Baseball ·Media Common ·Basketball ·Medicine ·Bicycles ·Metaweb Types ·Biology ·Meteorology ·Boats ·Military ·Broadcast ·Music ·Business ·Olympics ·Celebrities ·Opera ·Chemistry ·Organization ·Comics ·People ·Common ·Geography ·Computers ·Projects ·Conferences ·Protected Places ·Cricket ·Publishing ·Data World ·Radio ·Digicams ·Rail ·Education ·Religion ·Engineering ·Royalty ·Event ·Soccer ·Clothing and Textiles ·Spaceflight ·Fictional Universes ·Sports ·Film ·Symbols ·Food & Drink ·Tennis ·Freebase ·Theater ·Games ·Time ·Geology ·Transportation ·Government ·Travel ·Hobbies and Interests ·TV ·Ice Hockey ·Video Games ·Influence ·Visual Art Top-level domains schema = vocabulary
  37. 37. Ontologies you design will be too complicated because almost all people will use a small subset of it Ontologies you design will be too simple because there will be a long tail of users who will want to express something you didn’t cover --Colin Evans (Metaweb) Solution: • Provide a core • Let the community tune the specifics to their needs
  38. 38. What is a Politician?
  39. 39. Schema Principle #2 Avoid Types which "carve out" categories of things
  40. 40. "Original TV Program" • Is a TV Program • Isn't an adaptation of a film • Isn't an adaptation of a book • Isn't an adaptation of a play • Wasn't spun off from another TV Program • Hasn't spun off any other TV Programs
  41. 41. "Original TV Program" [{   "name": null,   "type": "/tv/tv_program",   "b:type": {     "id":       "/media_common/adaptation",     "optional": "forbidden"   },   "spun_off_from": [{     "id":       null,     "optional": "forbidden"   }],   "spin_offs": [{     "id":       null,     "optional": "forbidden"   }] }] Show as Two Views not a MQL query
  42. 42. Principle #2 Corollary Strive for bright lines between Types • Let queries and simple types do the work • Better, easier to maintain data quality
  43. 43. What are you sitting on? Chair Furniture Folding Chair Natural Category Added Features? What does one look like? Eleanor Rosch
  44. 44. HTML5 MicroData Open Graph Protocol #
  45. 45. Addendum
  46. 46. Social Network Analysis Resources Wikipedia Jon Kleinberg http://www.cs.cornell.edu/home/kleinber Twitter Kwak et al. WWW2010 http://an.kaist.ac.kr/traces/WWW2010.html
  47. 47. Modeling Resources McGuinness & Noy's Ontologies 101 Attend when possible! http://ksl.stanford.edu/people/dlm/papers/ontology101 Toward Principles for the Design of Ontologies Used for Knowledge Sharing http://tomgruber.org/writing/onto-design.htm Allemang & Hendler Semantic Web for the Working Ontologist
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×