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Social Fabric of Semantics - SemTech 2010

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Vocabulary construction is critical to the success of semantic technologies. Can we learn from communities where practical vocabularies have emerged?

Vocabulary construction is critical to the success of semantic technologies. Can we learn from communities where practical vocabularies have emerged?

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  • 1. The Social Fabric of Semantics Jamie Taylor, Ph.D.
  • 2. http://rdf.freebase.com/ns/en.jamie_taylor
  • 3. Explicit Semantics in Surprising Places
  • 4. microformats HTML5 MicroData Open Graph Protocol RDFa
  • 5. We have overlooked the human “stack”
  • 6. The Crisis of Vocabulary Much formal analysis of knowledge representation Little guidance on what actually works
  • 7. education nationality contained-by education member-of event albums label contained-by contains member-of The arrangement of entities in a graph is not predetermined by a higher being
  • 8. contains contained-by event member-of nationality education albums Vocabulary is a social process
  • 9. Semantics: To communicate meaning, resulting in an action Or at least so Blue Guy can write code that responds to the graph in a way consistent with Red Guy's expectations
  • 10. Vocabulary "All the types of things you can say about something"
  • 11. http://rdf.freebase.com/ns/en.paul_david_hewson
  • 12. Alison Hewson EDUN Mount Temple Comprehensive School May 10, 1960 U2 Million Dollar Hotel End of Violence Elevation Partners Show 8 Dublin spouse date of birth founder performer education founder producerperform er bornin memberof Semantics are in the Links
  • 13. Alison Hewson EDUN Mount Temple Comprehensive School May 10, 1960 U2 Million Dollar Hotel End of Violence Elevation Partners Show 8 Dublin spouse date of birth founder performer education founder producerperform er bornin memberof Semantics are in the Links
  • 14. Do you understand the words that are coming out of my mouth?
  • 15. The Twitter Vocabulary @ # Short URLs
  • 16. Pivot on @
  • 17. Pivot on Short URL
  • 18. Pivot on #
  • 19. #
  • 20. Broadcast: U(n) = n
  • 21. Telephone: Metcalfe's Law U(n) = n2
  • 22. Group Network Formation: Reed's Law U(n) = 2n
  • 23. Reed's Law N Value N N^2 2^N
  • 24. N Value N N2 2N Broadcast Email Chatrooms
  • 25. N Value N N2 2N Tweets #tagsFeeds #tags are a USER invention!
  • 26. N Value N N2 2N Folksonomy ???Ontology
  • 27. Twannotations Tweets have "type" Name/Value Structure What's the vocabulary? •Anything you want •Lead by example
  • 28. Vocabulary and Visibility Pros: Feedback, Incentive, Training, Convergence
  • 29. Vocabulary and Visibility Cons: Usage for side effects
  • 30. Lessons from everyday vocabulary Wikipedia Word Frequency 0 2000000 4000000 6000000 8000000 10000000 12000000 14000000 16000000 18000000 20000000 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Rank Frequency Data from Victor S. Grishchenko
  • 31. Zipf’s Law ! Plot by Victor Grishchenko
  • 32. Zipf’s Explanation Law of Least Effort: Use a few common words to communicate main concept Use a few rare words to disambiguate concepts Satisficing
  • 33. 535,393 Categories 2k French Films
  • 34. 17 films
  • 35. Schema Principle #1 Use Types Liberally: Use a few large, encompassing Types to provide general information Use several smaller, fine grained Types to provide detailed information
  • 36. The Freebase Commons ·American football ·Internet ·Anime/Manga ·Language ·Architecture ·Law ·Astronomy ·Library ·Automotive ·Location ·Aviation ·Martial Arts ·Awards ·Measurement Unit ·Baseball ·Media Common ·Basketball ·Medicine ·Bicycles ·Metaweb Types ·Biology ·Meteorology ·Boats ·Military ·Broadcast ·Music ·Business ·Olympics ·Celebrities ·Opera ·Chemistry ·Organization ·Comics ·People ·Common ·Geography ·Computers ·Projects ·Conferences ·Protected Places ·Cricket ·Publishing ·Data World ·Radio ·Digicams ·Rail ·Education ·Religion ·Engineering ·Royalty ·Event ·Soccer ·Clothing and Textiles ·Spaceflight ·Fictional Universes ·Sports ·Film ·Symbols ·Food & Drink ·Tennis ·Freebase ·Theater ·Games ·Time ·Geology ·Transportation ·Government ·Travel ·Hobbies and Interests ·TV ·Ice Hockey ·Video Games ·Influence ·Visual Art Top-level domains schema = vocabulary
  • 37. Ontologies you design will be too complicated because almost all people will use a small subset of it Ontologies you design will be too simple because there will be a long tail of users who will want to express something you didn’t cover --Colin Evans (Metaweb) Solution: • Provide a core • Let the community tune the specifics to their needs
  • 38. What is a Politician?
  • 39. Schema Principle #2 Avoid Types which "carve out" categories of things
  • 40. "Original TV Program" • Is a TV Program • Isn't an adaptation of a film • Isn't an adaptation of a book • Isn't an adaptation of a play • Wasn't spun off from another TV Program • Hasn't spun off any other TV Programs
  • 41. "Original TV Program" [{   "name": null,   "type": "/tv/tv_program",   "b:type": {     "id":       "/media_common/adaptation",     "optional": "forbidden"   },   "spun_off_from": [{     "id":       null,     "optional": "forbidden"   }],   "spin_offs": [{     "id":       null,     "optional": "forbidden"   }] }] Show as Two Views not a MQL query
  • 42. Principle #2 Corollary Strive for bright lines between Types • Let queries and simple types do the work • Better, easier to maintain data quality
  • 43. What are you sitting on? Chair Furniture Folding Chair Natural Category Added Features? What does one look like? Eleanor Rosch
  • 44. HTML5 MicroData Open Graph Protocol #
  • 45. Addendum
  • 46. Social Network Analysis Resources Wikipedia Jon Kleinberg http://www.cs.cornell.edu/home/kleinber Twitter Kwak et al. WWW2010 http://an.kaist.ac.kr/traces/WWW2010.html
  • 47. Modeling Resources McGuinness & Noy's Ontologies 101 Attend when possible! http://ksl.stanford.edu/people/dlm/papers/ontology101 Toward Principles for the Design of Ontologies Used for Knowledge Sharing http://tomgruber.org/writing/onto-design.htm Allemang & Hendler Semantic Web for the Working Ontologist