Got Sugar? May 22, 2012 Jamie Morris, Katelyn Foster, Mary Jo Brady
Obesity on the Rise
Obesity Resolution Low Fat Diets: The USDA, AMA, and AHA call for dietary fat reduction Food Pyramid restructure promoting more carbohydrates and less fat 1992
Prevalence of Obesity Compared toPercent Calories from Fat Among USAdultsPercent % Year
It’s Not the Fat What happens when you cut the fat? • Taste Bad • Shorter shelf life Low-fat processed food means substitution with carbohydrate… Which carbohydrate? Either: • High fructose corn syrup (55% fructose) • Sucrose (50% fructose) i.e: Nabisco Snackwells® Oreos (-2g fat, +13g CHO (+4g sugars))
Sugar Consumption Trend •By recent USDA estimates, about 1/4 of the calories consumed by the average American is in the form of added sugars, and most of that is HFCS
What is HFCS? Glucose Fructose + = HFSC Glucose Fructose = Sucrose (table sugar)
Glucose vs. FructoseYour body metabolizes fructose in a much different way than glucose After eating fructose, 100 % of the metabolic burden rests on your liver. But with glucose, your liver has to break down only 20 percent. Every cell in your body, including your brain, utilizes glucose. Therefore, much of it is "burned up" immediately after you consume it. By contrast, fructose is turned into free fatty acids, VLDL, and triglycerides, which get stored as fat. Glucose suppresses the hunger hormone ghrelin and stimulates leptin, which suppresses your appetite. Fructose has no effect on ghrelin and interferes with your brains communication with leptin, resulting in overeating. People are consuming fructose in enormous quantities, which has made the negative effects much more profound.
Glucose24 calories 120 calories 96 calories (about 2 slices of bread) 24 liver calories Glucose ATP ADP Liver G-6-P Glycogen Organs Muscles Pyruvate body Acetyl CoA TCA ATP CO2 VLDL / Fat Citrate(0.5 calories)
Sucrose 120 calories Liver Organs, Muscles, BodyGlucose (50%) 12 48Fructose (50%) 60 0 • When you eat 120 calories of glucose, less than one calorie is stored as fat. 120 calories of fructose results in 40 calories being stored as fat. Consuming fructose is essentially consuming fat!
The Other Sugar: High Fructose Corn Syrup• High fructose corn syrup entered the American food supply in 1975 justas the nations obesity rate started to soar• We Consume, on Average, 42 Pounds per Person per Year• The food and beverage industry doesnt want you to realize how trulypervasive HFCS is in your diet -- not just from soft drinks and juices, butalso in salad dressings and condiments and virtually every processedfood. The introduction of HFCS into the Western diet has been a multi-billion dollar boom for the corn industry.Reasons Why Manufacturers Likes HFCS:• Produces a longer shelf life of foods than cane sugar• Addicting• It is cheaper than cane sugar• Sweeter than table sugar
Secular trend in fructose consumption Natural consumption of fruits and vegetables •15 gm/day Prior to WWII (estimated): •16-24 gm/day 1977-1978 (USDA Nationwide Food Consumption Survey): •37 gm/day (8% of total caloric intake) 1994 (NHANES III): •54.7 gm/day (10.2% of total caloric intake) Adolescents: •72.8 gm/day (12.1% of total caloric intake) •25% consumed at least 15% of calories from fructoseBray, Am J Clin Nutr 86:895, 2007; Vos et al. Medscape Med J 10:160, 2008
Conclusion Since 1980 obesity has significantly risen, right afterHFCS was introduced to our diet 100% of the metabolism of fructose is dependent onyour liver, where most of it gets stored as fat Fructose has no effect on ghrelin and interferes withyour brains communication with leptin, resulting inovereating We are consuming fructose in enormous quantities,which has made the negative effects much more profound
Health Affects• Hypertension (high blood pressure)• Osteoarthritis (a degeneration of cartilage and its underlying bone within a joint)• Dyslipidemia (high total cholesterol or high levels of triglycerides)• Type 2 diabetes• Heart disease• Stroke• Gallbladder disease• Sleep apnea and respiratory problems• Some cancers (pancreas, kidney, prostate, endometrial, breast, and colon)• Tooth decay (anaerobic metabolism)
Sugar Shockers! So how much exactly is a gram of sugar? One teaspoon of granulated sugar equals 4 grams of sugar Fat Free: Nesquick Fat Free Chocolate Milk: 16 ounces = 54 grams sugar, 300 calories 99% Fat Free: Yoplait Original 99% fat free, Lemon Burst: 6 ounces = 31 grams sugar, 180 calories Skinny Cow Low-fat Ice Cream Cone Low Fat: (different flavors): 1 cone = 19 grams sugar, 150 calories SoBe Green Tea: 16 ounces = 50 grams sugar, 200 calories Healthy: Snapple Iced Tea, Peach, Lemon, or Raspberry: 16 ounces =46-50 grams sugar, 200 calorieshttp://www.webmd.com/food-recipes/features/sugar-shockers-foods-surprisingly-high-in-sugar
Citations: http://images.search.yahoo.com/search/images;_ylt=A0oG7hepyalPImAAFG5XNyoA ?p=koolaid+mustache&fr=slv8-hptb5&fr2=piv- http://www.google.com/search?q=cartoon+images+of+tooth+decay&um=1&hl= en&gbv=2&tbm=isch&ei=4sypT62jEOWJ6AHA4qjMBA&start=63&sa=N www.ncsl.org/issues.../obesity-statistics-in- the-united-states.aspx http://www.hivehealthmedia.com/world-obesity-stats-2 010/http://www.data360.org/dsg.aspx?Data_Set_Group_Id=196 http://runews.rockefeller.edu/index.php? page=engine&id=237 Sugar: The Bitter Truth. Robert H. Lustig, Professor of Pediatrics at UCSF