The Acculturation Model of Second Language Acquisition was formulated by John H. Schumann in order to determine factors involved in the second-language learning process. The acculturation model is an attempt to provide a social and psychological perspective on second-language acquisition. We shall get into the details of these social and psychological factors in awhile. Acculturation is one of the derivatives of the word acculturate, which means: to “assimilate or cause to assimilate a different culture, typically the dominant one.” Assimilate, that is, to be absorbed into a different culture or to be integrated to a different culture. In the context of our discussion, we are concerned with “the social and psychological integration of the learner with the target language (TL) group – that is the group that speaks the language a learner intends to learn. In the acculturation model of SLA, we are talking about the natural context of SLA, that is, learning the language without instruction and in the environment where it is spoken.
While there are many factors influencing second language acquisition, the acculturation model, as hinted in the awhile ago, is mainly concerned with the social factors and affective factors that may influence the success or failure in the acquisition of an L2.
Social Factors – refer to the relationship between two social groups who are in a contact situation, but who speak different languages. Social factors can either promote or inhibit contact between the two groups and thus affect the degree to which the 2LL group acculturates (integrates) which in turn affects the degree to which that group will acquire the target language.TARGT LANGAUGE GROUP – the group that speaks the language (target language) that the 2LL wishes to learn.
ENCLOSURE - If the two groups share these social constructs then enclosure said to be low, contact bet the two groups is enhanced and acquisition of the target language by the 2LL group is enhanced.
Tantrum is defined as:
emotional “explosions” designed to express extreme personal displeasure.
A behavior usually associated with emotional distress.
a behavior that attempts to manipulate others towards a desired end.
can be due to
- part of growing
up is developing
to skills to deal
By the end
of the teen
insecurity in adulthood
can prompt tantrums.
with life. Little is
needed in the way of
additional frustration or
spark and emotional
adult tantrums because
the person feels they are
already the victims of
injustice. The otherwise
minor setbacks of the day
can cause lingering
feelings of being treated
unjustly by others to
transition into anger.
tantrums can be related to
personality traits. The five
factor model of personality
includes a dimension labeled
“neuroticism” that includes
with tantrum-like acting out.
High neuroticism could cause
people to have a tendency
STRESS. Stress is the
inability to manage the
demands of two or
more priorities in life or
due to our inability to
between two or more
demands on us.
Stress has our emotional
tanks already in a boiling
state and little more is
needed for stress to
manifest in generalized
• SELFISHNESS. A final
possible cause of
adult tantrums is
or someone is
from getting what
Guidance and Counseling
• Guidance and Counseling is provided
in almost all schools, may it be tertiary,
secondary or primary schools.
• Seeking professional help is useful
especially when tantrums severely
affect your life.
Purposes of GUIDANCE (Carl Rogers)
himself and his
become a more
functioning as a
who he is and
who he can
The purpose of
most of the
professions is to
maturity, of its
Why learn about your brain‟s
works is an
brain, it is
to learn how
mostly a matter
• In many instances our
responses are directly
preceded by automatic
remain hidden for most
people. Unless you train
yourself to look for these
thoughts, you will
probably be unaware of
When we identify ourselves with our negative
emotional states, it is difficult to control them.
By identifying with our negative emotions, we
open up the possibility (and likelihood) that we
will become dominated by them. Emotional
control is essentially a matter of disidentifying
with or detaching ourselves from our negative
Emotional control techniques and
Freeze-framing is a simple yet
powerful technique for
disengaging from negative
emotions. When you freezeframe, you shift out of gear and
• Thought Field therapy enables
you to access the deepest,
most fundamental underlying
cause of all negative emotions.
Major debilitating emotions
such as depression, anxiety and
phobias can be quickly
eliminated by correcting the
problem at the fundamental
• Idenics is a self-development
technology which enables you
to rid yourself of unwanted
mental or emotional conditions.
• Freeze-framing is essentially
a tool for handling stress.
Most of us find ourselves
automatically slipping into
responses when we are
under pressure, and in
doing so, we loose our
ability to keep a levelheaded perspective. When
we freeze-frame, we shift
ourselves into neutral; we
maintain a high level of
clarity and insight even
when we are in the middle
of the stressful moment.
Thought Field Therapy
• Dr. Roger Callahan has pioneered a
remarkable form of psychotherapy
called "Thought Field Therapy™."
Originally Dr. Callahan had developed
thought field therapy to help his clients
eliminate their fears and phobias.
• The implications of thought field therapy are
profound. We still have not acquired the
knack of eliminating to any significant degree,
the negativity in our lives. We still manage to
get ourselves tangled up in problems and
negativities which have the potential to more
or less destroy our lives. And the realistic, yet
sad, fact is that most of it is completely
unnecessary. Humans have got to reach a
point in their development where such things
as depression, anxiety, addictions, obsessions,
etc., are laughable absurdities.
• The basic working idea behind Idenics is
that we tend to get stuck in various
unwanted mental or emotional
conditions; we automatically slip into
certain perspectives and response
patterns which at one time may have
been quite useful, but now cause us
trouble, limit us or hold us back. The
problem is not so much the perspective
itself as the fact that we seem to be stuck
in it and unable to see beyond it.
• It offered a set of alternative
viewpoints with respect to coping with
deeper „unwanted conditions.
• Provides a functional methodology for
value enhancement and clarification.
• Villar, I. (2007). Implementing a Comprehensive
Guidance and Counseling Program in the Philippines.
Philippines: Aligned Transformations Publications.