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  1. 1. Christianity andIdentity in Ireland Ireland into the Eighteenth Century
  2. 2. Recap.• 4 Distinctive Communities inhabiting Ireland – Gaelic Irish (Catholic, politically weak) – Old English (Catholic, still wary of Gaelic Irish, increasingly disenfranchised) – New English (Protestant: Puritan CoI, disproportionately powerful) – Scots Settlers (Protestant: Presbyterian, worship in Puritan CoI [no presbytery!], close links to Scotland)• 30 Years War on Continent, 1618-1648 (Catholic Europe vs. Protestant Europe, 1000s of mercenaries recruited from both Ireland and Scotland)• Charles I king of 3 sovereign Kingdoms, but increasingly unpopular
  3. 3. Ulster Rising/Rebellion• 1638: Scots Covenant• 1639: Bishops War• 1641: Parliament recalled headed by John Pym – “Godly Government” – Anti-catholic policies – Massachusetts is example• How would Catholic Ireland view this? What ‘success story’ could they look to for an example?• Rebellion planned by three Irish MPs, Sir Phelim O’Neill, Owen Roe O’Neill and Lord Maguire• 23rd Octoboer: soon deteriorates into bitter sectarian fighting, why?• Sir John Temple’s Irish Rebellion (1646) claimed 120,000 Protestants killed. – More than are actually in the country.• Perhaps accurate number 3-5,000
  4. 4. 1. What do these woodcuts remind you of?2. How was this propaganda likely to affect popular Puritan opinion?
  5. 5. Confederacy and Civil War • June 1642: Confederate Oath of Association“Ireland united for God, King and Country”
  6. 6. I, A.B., do profess, swear, and protest before God and His saints and angels, the I will, duringmy life, bear true faith and allegiance to my Sovereign Lord, Charles, by the grace of God,King of Great Britain, France and Ireland, and to his heirs and lawful successors; and that Iwill, to my power, during my life, defend, uphold and maintain, all his and their justprerogatives, estates, and rights, the power and privilege of the Parliament of this realm, thefundamental laws of Ireland, the free exercise of the Roman Catholic faith and religionthroughout this land; and the lives, just liberties, possessions, estates, and rights of all thosethat have taken, or that shall take this Oath, and perform the contents thereof; and that I willobey and ratify all the orders and decrees made, and to be made, by the Supreme Council ofthe Confederate Catholics of this Kingdom, concerning the said public cause; and I will notseek, directly or indirectly, any pardon or protection for any act done, or to be done, touchingthis general cause, without the consent of the major part of the said Council; and that I willnot, directly or indirectly, do any act or acts that shall prejudice the said cause, but will, to thehazard of my life and estate, assist, prosecute and maintain the same.Moreover, I do further swear that I will not accept of, or submit unto any peace, made, or tobe made, with the said Confederate Catholics, without the consent and approbation of theGeneral Assembly of the said Confederate Catholics, and for the preservation andstrengthening of the association and union of the kingdom. That upon any peace oraccommodation to be made, or concluded with the said Confederate Catholics as aforesaid, Iwill, to the utmost of my power, insist upon and maintain the ensuing propositions, until apeace, as aforesaid, be made, and the matters to be agreed upon in the articles of peace beestablished and secured by Parliament.So help me God and His holy gospel.
  7. 7. Confederacy and Civil War • June 1642: Confederate Oath of Association • What does this document remind you of? • Oct. 1642, Confederation meet in Kilkenny – 4 provincial armies – Mint – Printing press – Tax Collection – Supply provision – Foreign diplomacy“Ireland united for God, King and • First successful autonomous Country” government in Irish history
  8. 8. Civil War in England• Aug 1642: Charles raises royal standard in Nottingham• At war with Parliament• Appoints Earl of Ormond (Irish- Protestant Royalist) to negotiate with Confederacy• Reluctant to come to terms and accept help. Why?• June 1645: Parliament win major victory at Naseby with Fairfax and Cromwell’s New Model Army• Charles seeks help from Confederates• 12th Oct 1645: Papal nuncio Rinuccini arrives• Why is he outraged at willingness of confederacy to offer support to Charles?• Rinuccini threatens excommunication• Splits confederacy
  9. 9. Cromwell in Ireland• June 1647: Michael Jones arrives in Dublin with Parliamentary force – Battle of Dungan’s hill• Country descends into chaos• Dec 1647: Charles escapes prison, signs “Engagement” with Scots• Presbyterianism seen by Parliament as threat to “liberty”. What does this mean?• Putney Debates• Parliament makes war on Scotland• 30 Jan 1649: Charles beheaded• Aug 1649: Cromwell arrives in Ireland with 20,000 Ironsides – Massacres in Drogheda and Wexford – Why?
  10. 10. Cromwellian Ireland• John Morrill, “Britain’s wars of religion”• Cromwell wanted to establish a godly commonwealth• Ireland was seen as a “blank sheet” to paint a “New Jerusalem” – 20-40% of Irish population of 1.5mil. died in war
  11. 11. Cromwellian Ireland• 1652: Act of Settlement• Colonisation and Anglicisation, Independent Churches• Fines for Recusancy• Anti-Catholicism – bounty for wolves and priests• Transportation – 40,000 soldiers, priests, school teachers, “vagrants”• Transplantation• Change in land ownership – 1641: 60% held by Catholics – 1660: only 20%
  12. 12. Restoration in Ireland• 1660 Commonwealth collapsed and invited Charles II to return• Expectations for both Protestants and Catholics in Ireland • Cromwell’s soldiers wanted to keep land • Irish desired to be restored to what they lost fighting for: • Religion • King• Ormond, Lord Lieutenant: ‘there must be new discoveries of a new Ireland, for the old will not serve to satisfy these engagements’.
  13. 13. • All Protestant Parliament (75% of 2 mil. population Catholic!)• Status quo except for ‘Innocents’ • Specific Royalists• Court of Claims to discern who was innocent • 500 innocent Catholic landowners • Too many innocent!• Ireland increasingly treated economically as another Atlantic colony
  14. 14. ‘The catholics of Ireland...lost their estatesin the great rebellion, for fighting indefence of their king., whilst theschismatics, who cut off the father’s head,forced the son to fly for his life, andoverturned the whole ancient frame ofgovernment...obtained grants of thoseestates the catholics lost in defence of theancient constitution, and thus they gainedby their rebellion what the catholics lost bytheir loyalty’. -Jonathan Swift
  15. 15. James II: 1685-1688 • James was a Catholic, this raised hopes in Ireland, but – Upheld CoI – Refused to budge on land question • yet: appointed Richard Talbot, earl of Tyrconnell LD • Pro-Catholic policy in Dublin Castle • Tyrconnell willing to reopen land question • James was tolerated by Parliament • June 1688: his wife gives birth to a son • Nov 1688: William of Orange lands in Devon • James flees and sets up court-in- exile in France
  16. 16. James II: 1685-1688 • French encourage James to use his kingdom of Ireland as a base to go to war with William, why? • Apr 1689: Siege of Derry • May 1689: General Schomberg arrives in Foyle with Danish mercenaries • June 1690: William arrives at Carrickfergus • 12th July 1690: Battle of the Boyne – Indecisive but clear that James will not win the war
  17. 17. James II: 1685-1688 • Irish initially shown leniency by William (Galway Treaty), yet France encouraged them to keep fighting, why? • 3 Oct 1691: war ends, Articles of Limerick • William ready to still show leniency but Protestant Irish fudge treaty
  18. 18. Penal Laws: 1692-1705• Westminster favoured a strong • 1695: Catholic disabilities (though limited) Protestant – No catholic institutions of education elite – No arms carrying• Penal laws ensured that CoI – No horses worth more than £5 Protestants were first class • 1697: act of banishment citizens and that Catholics (and – Bishops and regular clergy banished – Undercover bishops appointed by dissenters!) were rendered James (Donnelly of Armagh) harmless – 1000s of secular clergy allowed to stay,• Background: War with France, why? Irish continued contact with • 1704: Popery Act Stuart court in France – No catholic to buy land – Leases limited to 31 years• Catholics essentially banished – Estate divided between all sons from cities – Protestant heirs to receive all land• Also: Introduction of the – No Catholics to act as guardians potato complicated matters by • 1709: oath of abjuration causing population explosion – Essentially disenfranchises entire catholic population
  19. 19. ‘I A.B. do solemnly and sincerely, in the presence of God, Profess, Testify, and Declare, That I do believe, That in the Sacrament of theLords Supper there is not any Transubstantiation of the Elements of Bread and Wine into the Body and Blood of Christ, at, or after the Consecration thereof by any person whatsoever; And that theInvocation or Adoration of the Virgin Mary, or any other Saint, and the Sacrifice of the Mass, as they are now used in the Church of Rome, are Superstitious and Idolatrous.’
  20. 20. Construction of Catholic- Irish Identity•Continentally trained Catholic Clergy wrote popular Gaelicpoetry•5 sectarian poems from 1650-70 re-published anddistributed in bi-lingual versions to elites and clergy through18th/19th centuries•Played on Gael (Irish language speaker) and Gall(foreigner)•10 surving manuscripts = ‘popular tradition’, 242 copies of‘Ireland’s Dirge’ (c. 1655) survive!•This combines in the late 17th/18th century withdevelopments in political philosophy to GRADUALLYcreate an idea of CATHOLIC NATIONHOOD
  21. 21. Extracts from An Síogaí Rómhánach (The Roman Vision) c. 1650 …Then none shall league with the Saxon, Nor with the bare-faced Scot, Then shall Erin be freed from settlers, Then shall perish the Saxon tongue The Gaels in arms shall triumphOver the crafty, thieving, false sect of Calvin… …True faith shall be uncontrolled; The people shall be rightly taught By friars, bishops, priests and clerics…
  22. 22. Irish = GaelicIrish = Catholic
  23. 23. • Catholic forced to meet in illegal mass-houses or ‘sacathlans’• 18th century actually witnesses a rejuvenation in Irish Catholicism• 1760: Pope refutes the Stuart dynasty’s claim to the British and Irish throne (1707 – act of union!)• Populaiton growth and renewed war with France forces a change in policy in ‘On Sunday, 30th May 1784, St Marys was Westminster opened in Crooked Lane (now Chapel Lane). This was the first Catholic Church in Belfast• Catholicism legalized in 1782 and it was built at a time when there was a• This combines with the spirit of strong ecumenical spirit within the town. “Enlightenment” and Progress” Indeed, its Protestant inhabitants contributed substantially towards the cost of the building• Legal churches built and the 1st Belfast Volunteer Company, under the command of Captain Waddell• St. Mary’s built in Belfast in 1784 Cunningham, lined the Chapel yard as a guard• 1782 census recorded 365 Catholics living in of honour, in full dress, and presented arms to Belfast the priest as he passed into the Chapel.’• 1866 45,000 Catholics living in Belfast
  24. 24. Formation of Protestant Nation• Penal laws ensured wealth was concentrated in hands of a few CoI Protestant families• Land: 1703: 14% 1778: 5%• Irish Parliament becomes incredibly important• Despite the grandeur and pomp of ascendency Ireland, Protestant power is undeniably weak• 1717: Dissenting Protestantism legalised (though still prohibitions)
  25. 25. Construction of Protestant Identity• Markus Barth: communities form identities by differentiation and exclusion• Increasingly Catholicism=Gaelicism• Protestant identity formed by: – anti-catholicism (differentiaiton from Catholic-Gaels) – repressive English policies which curtailed the Irish Parliaments power (kingdom or colony?)• William Molyneux, Jonathan Swift and others argue for increased “Irish” independence• Describe themselves as “THE WHOLE IRISH NATION”
  26. 26. Formation of Protestant- Irish Identity•Irish historical texts were re-read by ascendency Ireland to justify their anti-Catholicism•The native-Irish were Catholic because they were Gaelic, and Gaels dangerous,disloyal because they were Catholic•James Ussher, 1620: “as Jehu said to Joram, “What peace can there be, as long as thewhoredoms of thy mother Jezebel and her witchcrafts are so many? So I must say unto them:What peace can there be, as long as you suffer yourselves to be led by “the mother of all harlots.”•William Temple: The Irish Rebellion, 1646 – Catholics unconvertible•Archbishop of Armagh, 1745:“You are to raise in your people a religious abhorrence of the Popish government and polity, for Ican never be brought to call Popery in the gross a religion… Their absurd doctrines… theirpolitical government … make it impossible for them to give any security of theirbeing good governors, or good subjects in a Protestant kingdom.”• Some attempts at conversion but hindered by lack of funds, desire and doctrineof election (John Ricahrdson)•Increasingly out of touch with England•What about dissenters??