Unit 1 ch 1 3


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Unit 1 ch 1 3

  1. 1. Warmup 8/30 <br />Has the discovery of America been beneficial or harmful to the human race? <br />Explain in at least 3-5 sentences. <br />
  2. 2. Pre-Contact Americas, Discovery & Colonialization<br />Ms. Josephson<br />Woodrow Wilson Senior High School<br />AP US History<br />
  3. 3. What is the significance of 1492? <br />Discovery or holocaust?<br />Uninhabited land or 50+ million people?<br />Greater positives than negatives? <br />Introduction of slave trade to new continent.<br />Utopia (1518) Sir Thomas More <br />Ideal society where crime, inustice don’t exist <br />Hold all in common, scorn wealth but—slave labor? <br />
  4. 4. The Columbian Exchange<br />
  5. 5. Essential Question<br />What causes people to leave their homes & explore new lands? <br />
  6. 6. Causes of Exploration<br />Wealth (spices, jewels, drugs, textiles, gold)<br />Mercantilism<br />Religious motives<br />Knowledge<br />For Countries<br />French = Forest, Fish and Firs (3 F’s)<br />Spanish = Gold, God and Glory (3 G’s) <br />Aiming for Asia & “found” America<br />Caravel & Portuguese exploration (Prince Henry the Navigator)<br />Competition between European powers<br />
  7. 7. Empires<br />Spain<br />Amerigo Vespucci – America named after him (mistake on map)<br />Treaty of Tordesillas = Line of Demarcation<br />Pope Alexander VI divided new places<br />Spain gets all but Brazil to west of line<br />Portugal gets Africa<br />Vasco de Balboa –Isthmus of Panama to find Pacific Ocean<br />Juan Ponce de Leon- Florida & Fountain of Youth<br />Hernan Cortes-Aztec Empire-1519<br />Ferdinand Magellan—Circumnavigates the globe<br />Pizarro—Inca Empire-1530s<br />Hernando de Soto—Mississippi River looking for cities of gold<br />Francisco de Coronado—Grand Canyon (1539-1542) for gold<br />7 Cities myth made up by Indians to avoid conversion/death<br />
  8. 8. Empires<br />English<br />Cabot—Newfoundland—1497<br />Sir Francis Drake &his ‘Sea Dogs’—Voyage around the globe—1577—why? <br />Sir Walter Raleigh—Roanoke Island—1585—The Lost Colony<br />Why so late to the party? <br />French<br />Giovanni de Verrezano—Carolinas to Nova Scotia (1524)<br />Jacques Cartier—St. Lawrence River (1524)<br />Samuel de Champlain—Quebec founded 1608<br />All looking for Northwest Passage<br />
  9. 9. Empires<br />Dutch<br />Henry Hudson (Dutch East India Company)—New Amsterdam aka New York<br />Fort Amsterdam (1614)<br />New Amsterdam on Governors Island (1625)<br />
  10. 10. The Black Legend<br />16th Century—House of Habsburgs (Spain, Austria, Italy, Holland, New World)<br />Protestant rebellions  presentation of Spain as evil destructors of entire race of Indians, <br />Bartolome de lasCasas solution = importation of African slaves<br />Staple crops: Sugar, coffee, rice, indigo<br />Gives English “ideological sanction” to sieze ships, raid Spanish colonial cities & destroy Catholic hold over the New World<br />Spanish Armada destroyed (1588) => no longer able to stop the English from entering the New World<br />
  11. 11. First Permanent North American Settlements<br />England—1607—Jamestown<br />France—1608—Quebec—Fish & furs<br />Dutch—1614—Albany/New Amsterdam—Fish & furs<br />Sweden—1638—Deleware Valley—Fish & furs<br />Spain—1749 (Laredo)—1769 (California)—Gold &livestock, Mestizos<br />
  12. 12. Essential Questions<br />Why does one group succeed at colonization and another does not? <br />
  13. 13. Reasons England Won<br />+++Surplus population (enclosure & debt = English poor seek escape)<br />Indentured servitude<br />Religious persecution<br />Large variety in form of settlement/trades<br />Balanced sex ratio<br />
  14. 14. Jamestown<br />Virginia Company of London—1607<br />Algonquian Indians—30,000—Powhatan Confederacy<br />Food = greatest source of conflict<br />Residents = aristocrats<br />Unwilling to work<br />More interested in GOLD<br />
  15. 15. Jamestown Fort<br />
  16. 16. Captain John Smith<br />The Right Man for the Job?<br />Farmer’s son & military adventurer <br />President of Jamestown 1608-1609<br />Encouraged trading & calm interactions with Powhatan<br />Pocahontas? <br />Adoption ceremony?<br />Marriage to John Rolfe<br />
  17. 17. Chesapeake Bay<br />Do you see any geographic or environmental problems? <br />
  18. 18. English Migration: 1610-1660<br />
  19. 19. Jamestown Colonization Pattern: 1620-1660 <br />Large plantations (>100acres)<br />Spread > 5miles apart<br />See any problems there?<br />
  20. 20. High Mortality Rates<br />The “Starving Time”:<br />1607: 104 colonists<br />By spring, 1608: 38 survived<br />1609: 300 more immigrants<br />By spring, 1610: 60 survived<br />1610 – 1624: 10,000 immigrants<br />1624 population: 1,200<br />Adult life expectancy: 40 years<br />Death of children before age 5: 80%<br />
  21. 21. Anglo-Powhatan Wars<br />1610-1614 First Anglo-Powhatan War<br />De La Warr Raided villages, burned houses, took supplies, burned cornfields.<br />1614-1622-Peace sealed by Wolfe/Pochahontas<br />1622—Great Powhatan Uprising<br />1646—Indians defeated & removed from land<br />
  22. 22. Essential Questions<br />How does the purpose or cause of a colony’s founding affect its ensuing society? <br />
  23. 23. John Rolfe & Economic Success<br />Virginia’s gold & silver<br />TOBACCO<br />1618 — Virginia produces 20,000 pounds of tobacco.<br />1622- Virginia produces 60,000 pounds of tobacco.<br />1627 — Virginia produces 500,000 pounds of tobacco.<br />1629 — Virginia produces 1,500,000 pounds of tobacco.<br />
  24. 24. Tobacco Prices: 1618-1710<br />Why such a steep decline? <br />
  25. 25. But who did all the work? <br />Headright System:<br />Each Virginian got 50 acres for each person whose passage they paid.<br />Indenture Contract:<br />5-7 years.<br />Promised “freedom dues” [land, £]<br />Forbidden to marry.<br />1610-1614: only 1 in 10 outlived their indentured contracts!<br />Indentured Contract, 1746<br />
  26. 26. In-Class Activity<br />What was it like to be an indentured servant in Virginia? <br />
  27. 27. The Child of Tobacco<br />Tobacco’s effect on Virginia’s economy:<br />Vital role in putting VA on a firm economic footing.<br />Ruinous to soil when continuously planted.<br />Chained VA’s economy to a single crop.<br />Tobacco promoted the use of the plantation system.<br />Need for cheap, abundant labor.<br />
  28. 28. Why was 1619 a pivotal year for the Chesapeake settlement?<br />
  29. 29. Growing Political Power<br />The House of Burgesses established in 1619 & began to assume the role of the House of Commons in England<br />Control over finances, militia, etc.<br />By the end of the 17c, Virginia House of Burgesses was able to initiate legislation.<br />A Council appointed by royal governor<br />Mainly leading planters.<br />Functions like House of Lords.<br />High death rates ensured rapid turnover of members.<br />
  30. 30. Virginia Becomes a Royal Colony<br />James I grew hostile to Virginia<br />He hated tobacco.<br />He distrusted the House of Burgesses which he called a seminary of sedition.<br />1624-he revoked the charter of the bankrupt VA Company.<br />Thus, VA became a royal colony, under the king’s direct control!<br />
  31. 31. Slavery<br />English Tobacco Label <br />First Africans arrived in Jamestown in 1619.<br />Their status was not clear-- perhaps slaves, perhaps indentured servants.<br />Slavery not that important until the end of the 17c.<br />
  32. 32. The Atlantic Slave Trade <br />
  33. 33. Good Traded w/Africa for Slaves<br />
  34. 34. The Middle Passage<br />
  35. 35. Essential Question<br />How did slavery and indentured servitude diverge? <br />Was slavery an economic institution or a racial institution? <br />
  36. 36. Early Colonial Slavery<br />Beginning in 1662-- “Slave Codes”<br />Made blacks [and their children] property, or chattel for life of white masters.<br />In some colonies, it was a crime to teach a slave to read or write.<br />Conversion to Christianity did not qualify the slave for freedom.<br />
  37. 37. Frustrated Free White Men <br />Late 1600 -- large numbers of young, poor, discontented men in the Chesapeake area.<br />Little access to land or women for marriage.<br />1670 --The Virginia Assembly disenfranchised most landless men!<br />
  38. 38. Nathaniel Bacon’s Rebellion: 1676<br />Led 1,000 Virginians in a rebellion against Governor Berkeley<br />Rebels resented Berkeley’s close relations with Indians.<br />Berkeley monopolized the fur trade with the Indians in the area.<br />Berkley refused to retaliate for Indian attacks on frontier settlements.<br />GovernorWilliam Berkeley<br />Nathaniel Bacon<br />
  39. 39. Bacon’s Rebellion<br />Rebels attacked Indians, whether they were friendly or not to whites.<br />Governor Berkeley driven from Jamestown.<br />Rebels burned the capital & went on a rampage of plunder<br />Bacon suddenly died of fever.<br />Berkeley brutally crushed the rebellion and hanged 20 rebels.<br />
  40. 40. Results of Bacon’s Rebellion<br />It exposed resentments between inland frontiersmen and landless former servants against gentry on coastal plantations.<br />Socio-economic class differences/clashes between rural and urban communities would continue throughout American history.<br />Upper class planters searched for laborers less likely to rebel -- BLACK SLAVES!!<br />
  41. 41. The Settlement of Maryland<br />A royal charter was granted to George Calvert, Lord Baltimore, 1632<br />A proprietary colony created in 1634<br />Heathier location than Jamestown<br />Tobacco is to be main crop<br />Plan was to govern as an absentee owner in a feudal relationship (tracts of land granted to his Catholic relatives. <br />
  42. 42. A Haven for Catholics<br />Colonists only willing to come to MD if they received land<br />Colonists = Catholic land barons surrounded by mostly Protestant small farmers<br />Conflict between the two led to Lord Baltimore’s loss of proprietary rights at the end of the 17th century<br />Late 1600s—slave import begins<br />Baltimore allowed high degree of freedom of worship to prevent repeat of persecution of Cahtholics by Protestants<br />Protestants feel threatened<br />
  43. 43. Maryland Toleration Act of 1649<br />Maryland Tolerations Act of 1649 <br />Supported by Catholics in MD<br />Guaranteed toleration to all CHRISTIANS<br />Decreed death to those who denied the divinity of Jesus (like Jews, atheists, etc.)<br />In a way—less tolerant than before the law was passed!<br />
  44. 44. British Colonial Settlements by 1660<br />