Unit 1 ch 1 3
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Unit 1 ch 1 3 Unit 1 ch 1 3 Presentation Transcript

  • Warmup 8/30
    Has the discovery of America been beneficial or harmful to the human race?
    Explain in at least 3-5 sentences.
  • Pre-Contact Americas, Discovery & Colonialization
    Ms. Josephson
    Woodrow Wilson Senior High School
    AP US History
  • What is the significance of 1492?
    Discovery or holocaust?
    Uninhabited land or 50+ million people?
    Greater positives than negatives?
    Introduction of slave trade to new continent.
    Utopia (1518) Sir Thomas More
    Ideal society where crime, inustice don’t exist
    Hold all in common, scorn wealth but—slave labor?
  • The Columbian Exchange
  • Essential Question
    What causes people to leave their homes & explore new lands?
  • Causes of Exploration
    Wealth (spices, jewels, drugs, textiles, gold)
    Religious motives
    For Countries
    French = Forest, Fish and Firs (3 F’s)
    Spanish = Gold, God and Glory (3 G’s)
    Aiming for Asia & “found” America
    Caravel & Portuguese exploration (Prince Henry the Navigator)
    Competition between European powers
  • Empires
    Amerigo Vespucci – America named after him (mistake on map)
    Treaty of Tordesillas = Line of Demarcation
    Pope Alexander VI divided new places
    Spain gets all but Brazil to west of line
    Portugal gets Africa
    Vasco de Balboa –Isthmus of Panama to find Pacific Ocean
    Juan Ponce de Leon- Florida & Fountain of Youth
    Hernan Cortes-Aztec Empire-1519
    Ferdinand Magellan—Circumnavigates the globe
    Pizarro—Inca Empire-1530s
    Hernando de Soto—Mississippi River looking for cities of gold
    Francisco de Coronado—Grand Canyon (1539-1542) for gold
    7 Cities myth made up by Indians to avoid conversion/death
  • Empires
    Sir Francis Drake &his ‘Sea Dogs’—Voyage around the globe—1577—why?
    Sir Walter Raleigh—Roanoke Island—1585—The Lost Colony
    Why so late to the party?
    Giovanni de Verrezano—Carolinas to Nova Scotia (1524)
    Jacques Cartier—St. Lawrence River (1524)
    Samuel de Champlain—Quebec founded 1608
    All looking for Northwest Passage
  • Empires
    Henry Hudson (Dutch East India Company)—New Amsterdam aka New York
    Fort Amsterdam (1614)
    New Amsterdam on Governors Island (1625)
  • The Black Legend
    16th Century—House of Habsburgs (Spain, Austria, Italy, Holland, New World)
    Protestant rebellions  presentation of Spain as evil destructors of entire race of Indians,
    Bartolome de lasCasas solution = importation of African slaves
    Staple crops: Sugar, coffee, rice, indigo
    Gives English “ideological sanction” to sieze ships, raid Spanish colonial cities & destroy Catholic hold over the New World
    Spanish Armada destroyed (1588) => no longer able to stop the English from entering the New World
  • First Permanent North American Settlements
    France—1608—Quebec—Fish & furs
    Dutch—1614—Albany/New Amsterdam—Fish & furs
    Sweden—1638—Deleware Valley—Fish & furs
    Spain—1749 (Laredo)—1769 (California)—Gold &livestock, Mestizos
  • Essential Questions
    Why does one group succeed at colonization and another does not?
  • Reasons England Won
    +++Surplus population (enclosure & debt = English poor seek escape)
    Indentured servitude
    Religious persecution
    Large variety in form of settlement/trades
    Balanced sex ratio
  • Jamestown
    Virginia Company of London—1607
    Algonquian Indians—30,000—Powhatan Confederacy
    Food = greatest source of conflict
    Residents = aristocrats
    Unwilling to work
    More interested in GOLD
  • Jamestown Fort
  • Captain John Smith
    The Right Man for the Job?
    Farmer’s son & military adventurer
    President of Jamestown 1608-1609
    Encouraged trading & calm interactions with Powhatan
    Adoption ceremony?
    Marriage to John Rolfe
  • Chesapeake Bay
    Do you see any geographic or environmental problems?
  • English Migration: 1610-1660
  • Jamestown Colonization Pattern: 1620-1660
    Large plantations (>100acres)
    Spread > 5miles apart
    See any problems there?
  • High Mortality Rates
    The “Starving Time”:
    1607: 104 colonists
    By spring, 1608: 38 survived
    1609: 300 more immigrants
    By spring, 1610: 60 survived
    1610 – 1624: 10,000 immigrants
    1624 population: 1,200
    Adult life expectancy: 40 years
    Death of children before age 5: 80%
  • Anglo-Powhatan Wars
    1610-1614 First Anglo-Powhatan War
    De La Warr Raided villages, burned houses, took supplies, burned cornfields.
    1614-1622-Peace sealed by Wolfe/Pochahontas
    1622—Great Powhatan Uprising
    1646—Indians defeated & removed from land
  • Essential Questions
    How does the purpose or cause of a colony’s founding affect its ensuing society?
  • John Rolfe & Economic Success
    Virginia’s gold & silver
    1618 — Virginia produces 20,000 pounds of tobacco.
    1622- Virginia produces 60,000 pounds of tobacco.
    1627 — Virginia produces 500,000 pounds of tobacco.
    1629 — Virginia produces 1,500,000 pounds of tobacco.
  • Tobacco Prices: 1618-1710
    Why such a steep decline?
  • But who did all the work?
    Headright System:
    Each Virginian got 50 acres for each person whose passage they paid.
    Indenture Contract:
    5-7 years.
    Promised “freedom dues” [land, £]
    Forbidden to marry.
    1610-1614: only 1 in 10 outlived their indentured contracts!
    Indentured Contract, 1746
  • In-Class Activity
    What was it like to be an indentured servant in Virginia?
  • The Child of Tobacco
    Tobacco’s effect on Virginia’s economy:
    Vital role in putting VA on a firm economic footing.
    Ruinous to soil when continuously planted.
    Chained VA’s economy to a single crop.
    Tobacco promoted the use of the plantation system.
    Need for cheap, abundant labor.
  • Why was 1619 a pivotal year for the Chesapeake settlement?
  • Growing Political Power
    The House of Burgesses established in 1619 & began to assume the role of the House of Commons in England
    Control over finances, militia, etc.
    By the end of the 17c, Virginia House of Burgesses was able to initiate legislation.
    A Council appointed by royal governor
    Mainly leading planters.
    Functions like House of Lords.
    High death rates ensured rapid turnover of members.
  • Virginia Becomes a Royal Colony
    James I grew hostile to Virginia
    He hated tobacco.
    He distrusted the House of Burgesses which he called a seminary of sedition.
    1624-he revoked the charter of the bankrupt VA Company.
    Thus, VA became a royal colony, under the king’s direct control!
  • Slavery
    English Tobacco Label
    First Africans arrived in Jamestown in 1619.
    Their status was not clear-- perhaps slaves, perhaps indentured servants.
    Slavery not that important until the end of the 17c.
  • The Atlantic Slave Trade
  • Good Traded w/Africa for Slaves
  • The Middle Passage
  • Essential Question
    How did slavery and indentured servitude diverge?
    Was slavery an economic institution or a racial institution?
  • Early Colonial Slavery
    Beginning in 1662-- “Slave Codes”
    Made blacks [and their children] property, or chattel for life of white masters.
    In some colonies, it was a crime to teach a slave to read or write.
    Conversion to Christianity did not qualify the slave for freedom.
  • Frustrated Free White Men
    Late 1600 -- large numbers of young, poor, discontented men in the Chesapeake area.
    Little access to land or women for marriage.
    1670 --The Virginia Assembly disenfranchised most landless men!
  • Nathaniel Bacon’s Rebellion: 1676
    Led 1,000 Virginians in a rebellion against Governor Berkeley
    Rebels resented Berkeley’s close relations with Indians.
    Berkeley monopolized the fur trade with the Indians in the area.
    Berkley refused to retaliate for Indian attacks on frontier settlements.
    GovernorWilliam Berkeley
    Nathaniel Bacon
  • Bacon’s Rebellion
    Rebels attacked Indians, whether they were friendly or not to whites.
    Governor Berkeley driven from Jamestown.
    Rebels burned the capital & went on a rampage of plunder
    Bacon suddenly died of fever.
    Berkeley brutally crushed the rebellion and hanged 20 rebels.
  • Results of Bacon’s Rebellion
    It exposed resentments between inland frontiersmen and landless former servants against gentry on coastal plantations.
    Socio-economic class differences/clashes between rural and urban communities would continue throughout American history.
    Upper class planters searched for laborers less likely to rebel -- BLACK SLAVES!!
  • The Settlement of Maryland
    A royal charter was granted to George Calvert, Lord Baltimore, 1632
    A proprietary colony created in 1634
    Heathier location than Jamestown
    Tobacco is to be main crop
    Plan was to govern as an absentee owner in a feudal relationship (tracts of land granted to his Catholic relatives.
  • A Haven for Catholics
    Colonists only willing to come to MD if they received land
    Colonists = Catholic land barons surrounded by mostly Protestant small farmers
    Conflict between the two led to Lord Baltimore’s loss of proprietary rights at the end of the 17th century
    Late 1600s—slave import begins
    Baltimore allowed high degree of freedom of worship to prevent repeat of persecution of Cahtholics by Protestants
    Protestants feel threatened
  • Maryland Toleration Act of 1649
    Maryland Tolerations Act of 1649
    Supported by Catholics in MD
    Guaranteed toleration to all CHRISTIANS
    Decreed death to those who denied the divinity of Jesus (like Jews, atheists, etc.)
    In a way—less tolerant than before the law was passed!
  • British Colonial Settlements by 1660