Organic chemistry review for Anatomy and Physiology Students

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Organic chemistry review for Anatomy and Physiology Students

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Organic chemistry review for Anatomy and Physiology Students

  1. 1. The Chemistry of Life Organic Chemistry
  2. 2. Organic Chemistry is the chemistry of Carbon! Organic Chemistry vs. Inorganic Chemistry C, H, N, O, P, S All Elements Large # of Atoms Small # of Atoms Associated with Life Associated with Environment NaCl Organic Chemistry
  3. 3. Carbon can form many bonds! Valence=4 Can store/release lots of energy Carbon can build large and diverse molecules Carbon
  4. 4. Functional Groups Groups of atoms that bond to the “carbon skeleton” Determine the properties of organic molecules Behave consistently from one carbon-based molecule to another
  5. 5. Functional Groups
  6. 6. Hydroxyl -OH Alcohols, carbohydrates Polar Hydrophilic
  7. 7. Carbonyl (Aldehyde) -C=O At the end of the carbon skeleton Carbohydrates (Aldose sugars) Polar Hydrophilic
  8. 8. Carbonyl (Ketone) -C=O On an inside carbon of the carbon skeleton Carbohydrates (Ketose sugars) Polar Hydrophilic
  9. 9. Carboxyl -COOH Carbon double bonded to oxygen and also attached to a hydroxyl Lipids and Proteins Polar Hydrophilic
  10. 10. Phosphate -OPO3 2- Phosphorus atom surrounded by O Lipids and Nucleic Acids, ATP Polar Hydrophilic
  11. 11. Amino -NH2 Amino acids/proteins Polar Hydrophilic Can act as a base by accepting a H+ to form –NH3 +
  12. 12. Most organic molecules are macromolecules (Really Big!) Macromolecules are formed by a process called polymerization Biological Macromolecules
  13. 13. Large compounds are constructed by joining together many smaller units…. Small Units: Monomers (Basic Unit) Polymerization Large Units: Polymers (Many Units) Polymerization
  14. 14. Monomers Polymers Process called Dehydration Synthesis Many bonds formed by removing water Energy Stored Animation Dehydration Synthesis
  15. 15. Polymers Monomers Process called Hydrolysis Bonds broken by adding water Energy is released! Animation Hydrolysis
  16. 16. The compounds of life are all carbon based organic compounds! There are 4 groups of organic biomolecules found in all living things: •Carbohydrates •Lipids •Proteins •Nucleic Acids Organic Biomolecules
  17. 17. Carbohydrates Contain Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen in a 1:2:1 ratio Building blocks (monomers) are Monosaccharides
  18. 18. Monosaccharides Commonly called “sugars” General formula is (CH2O)n Contain 2 or more Hydroxyl groups, and a Carbonyl group Aldehyde = aldose sugars Ketone = ketose sugars
  19. 19. Very polar, hydrophilic Straight chains or rings Examples: Glucose Fructose Galactose Mannose Monosaccharides
  20. 20. Isomers Molecules that have the same chemical formula but different structure
  21. 21. Disaccharides Two monosaccharides joined by dehydration synthesis Strong covalent bond called Glycosidic Linkage Example: Sucrose C12H22O11
  22. 22. Polysaccharides Large complex carbohydrates Made up of many repeating monosaccharides Functions: Energy storage Structural molecules used to build cells/tissues
  23. 23. Energy Storage Polysaccharides Plant Cells Animal Cells Starch Glycogen
  24. 24. Structural Polysaccharides Plant Cells Animal Cells Cellulose Chitin
  25. 25. Lipids Contain many Carbon and Hydrogen atoms and few Oxygen Commonly called “fats”, “oils”, or “waxes” All lipids are nonpolar and hydrophobic
  26. 26. Lipids
  27. 27. Lipids: Triglycerides (fat) Building blocks include: 1 Glycerol a 3 carbon molecule 3 Fatty Acids long chains of Carbon with a single carboxyl group
  28. 28. Lipids: Triglycerides (fat) Fatty Acids: Saturated fatty acids contain carbon to carbon single bonds and the maximum number of H atoms Unsaturated fatty acids contain 1 or more carbon to carbon double bonds and fewer than the maximum number of H atoms
  29. 29. Lipids: Triglycerides (fat)
  30. 30. Lipids: Triglycerides (fat) 3 fatty acids are joined to glycerol by dehydration synthesis Strong covalent bond called ester linkage Fats store concentrated energy in the many C-H bonds Also provide insulation against cold, protect internal organs, provide waterproofing
  31. 31. Lipids: Phospholipids Glycerol 2 Fatty acids Phosphate group Nonpolar tails, polar head (amphipathic) Form bilayers that make cell membranes
  32. 32. Lipids: Phospholipids
  33. 33. Lipids: Steroids Hormones that regulate cellular activities Ring-shaped, not like triglycerides
  34. 34. Protein Most abundant and diverse molecules in living cells Contains C, H, O, and N Carboxyl group Amino group Building blocks are called amino acids Polymers of amino acids are called Polypeptides
  35. 35. Protein: Amino Acids Amino Acids: • Building blocks of proteins • Central carbon atom • Hydrogen atom • Amino group • Carboxyl group • R group (variable structure)
  36. 36. Diversity of R groups Varied chemical properties and interactions
  37. 37. Protein: Peptide Bonds Two amino acids joined together by dehydration synthesis Strong covalent bond called peptide bond Bond forms between C of carboxyl group and N of the amino group Two amino acids joined
  38. 38. Formation of a Polypeptide
  39. 39. Protein: Polypeptide Many amino acids joined by peptide bonds Primary structure (sequence of amino acids) is determined by genetic code Tertiary structure results from amino acid chain folding back on itself. Results in globular, 3 dimensional molecule
  40. 40. Structure in organisms: collagen, connective tissue, keratin Hormones: regulate body functions Movement: major role in muscle contraction Transport: through cell membrane, and O2 in blood Enzymes: catalysts that speed up chemical reactions Protein: Functions
  41. 41. All complex proteins can be denatured! Change in pH or temperature Shape is lost Function is lost Function can be restored if conditions are restored! Protein: Denaturing
  42. 42. Contain C, H, O, N and P atoms The primary function of nucleic acids is to store and transmit genetic information! Found in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells and in the nucleoid region of prokaryotic cells Nucleic Acids
  43. 43. The building blocks of nucleic acids are called nucleotides Nucleotides contain 3 parts: 1. 5 carbon sugar (pentose) 2. Phosphate group 3. Nitrogenous base Nucleic Acids: Nucleotides Two nucleotides are joined together by dehydration synthesis Strong covalent bond called phosphodiester linkages link the phosphate of one nucleotide to the sugar of the next nucleotide.
  44. 44. Nucleic Acids: Nitrogenous Bases Ring-shaped carbon and nitrogen molecules Purines are double rings: Adenine and Guanine Pyrimidines are single rings: Thymine, Cytosine, and Uracil (RNA)
  45. 45. DNA Deoxyribonucleic Acid Deoxyribose sugar Bases: (A and T) (C and G) Double Stranded Stores genetic information in nucleus Nucleic Acids: Polymers RNA Ribonucleic Acid Ribose Sugar Bases: (A and U) (C and G) Single stranded
  46. 46. The Special Chemicals of Life

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