Evolution natural selection_and_speciation 6 kings

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  • 1. Evidence of Change Evolution
  • 2. “ Evolve” Means to Change Over Time
    • The belief that life on Earth has changed over time is quite old
    • To be considered science, this belief requires a great deal of evidence
    Evolution
  • 3. The Development of Evolutionary Theory
    • Naturalists have always wondered at the diversity of living things………
    • Great varieties in shape, size, and ecological role
    • Estimated 3 million to 20 million different living species
    • Much of the natural world’s biodiversity has vanished through extinction
    • 99% of all species that ever lived are now extinct
    • Permian-Triassic Mass Extinction
    • What Killed the Dinosaurs?
    Evolution
  • 4.  
  • 5.  
  • 6.  
  • 7. Development of Evolutionary Theory
    • What could cause such great diversity, and why have so many species died out?
    • Charles Darwin offered an explanation based on careful observations
    • Who was Charles Darwin?
    Evolution
  • 8.  
  • 9.  
  • 10. Development of Evolutionary Theory
    • Darwin Concluded:
    • Physical traits and behaviors enable organisms to survive and reproduce (called Fitness )
    • Fitness results from adaptations
    • Darwin reasoned that adaptations result from natural selection and result in evolution
    Evolution Evolution is the process by which living things change and diversify over time
  • 11. Development of Evolutionary Theory
    • These ideas were widely challenged until a tremendous amount of evidence was gathered to support evolution!
    • Now…The Theory of Evolution is the Cornerstone of Biology
    • Explore the Evolution Revolution
    Evolution
  • 12. Natural Selection and Speciation
  • 13. Charles Darwin
    • Studied Medicine and Theology
    • Excelled in Geology and Biology
    • In 1831 Darwin joined the H.M.S. Beagle on a trip around the world to make maps
    • He was the ship’s naturalist
    • Darwin’s Diary
  • 14. Darwin Pieces Together the Puzzle
    • Collecting fossils and other specimens
    • Making detailed observations of animal behavior
    • Making detailed drawings of the organisms he encountered
    • Darwin traveled South America & Galapagos Islands
  • 15. The Voyage of the Beagle: Ports of Call Noted that populations of organisms were slightly different from place to place Each group was modified to their specific environment
  • 16. The Galapagos Archipelago
  • 17. Land Iguana Marine Iguana The Galapagos Iguanas
  • 18. The Galapagos Tortoises
  • 19. The Galapagos Tortoises
  • 20. The Galapagos Finches
  • 21. The Origin of Species Interactive Exploration The Galapagos Finches
  • 22. Charles Lyell Darwin Pieces Together the Puzzle Author of “ Principles of Geology” This book helped Darwin realize that the earth is old and changes slowly over time.
  • 23.
    • Malthus wrote “Essay on the Principles of Population”
    • Populations will always grow larger than the food supply, creating hunger, disease and struggle/competition. Some people live, others die.
    Darwin Pieces Together the Puzzle Thomas Malthus 18th Century Economist
  • 24.
    • Darwin coined the term Artificial Selection - the process of modification of a species through human actions which encourage the breeding of certain traits over others.
    Darwin Pieces Together the Puzzle http://www.esp.org/books/darwin/variation/facsimile/title3.html
  • 25. What Darwin Learned from Artificial Selection
    • When chosen organisms are mated, desired characteristics are formed (Darwin didn’t know about DNA)
    • Individuals in the wild who possess characteristics that make it more likely for them to reproduce will pass along these characteristics to their offspring.
    • “ Desirable" characteristics, in the wild , would be those which enhance survivability , NOT those which specifically satisfy human needs. Nature does the selecting .
    Darwin Pieces Together the Puzzle
  • 26. Lamarck’s View of Evolution
    • Stated that acquired characteristics can be passed on to offspring.
    Darwin Pieces Together the Puzzle
  • 27. Darwin’s View of Evolution Darwin Pieces Together the Puzzle Those giraffes with longer necks got more food and were better able to survive to reproduce, passing on the long-neck genes to their offspring. Over time, giraffes evolved longer necks.
  • 28. “ Of course, long before you mature, most of you will be eaten.” 4 Key Ideas of Natural Selection
  • 29. Evolution Through Natural Selection
    • Variation (genetic) is present in the population and this variation is inherited (genetically passed to offspring). (Praying Mantis Camouflage)
    • Living things Overproduce
    • Competition for Limited Resources
    • Survival of the “Fittest”
    • Reluctantly published On the Origin of Species in 1859
    • Video
    Natural Selection
  • 30. 4 Main Points of Natural Selection
    • Variation (genetic) is present in the population and this variation is inherited (genetically passed to offspring).
    • Living things Overproduce
    • Competition for Limited Resources
    • Survival of the “Fittest” Video
    Natural Selection
  • 31.  
  • 32. Fitness Defined
    • Organisms who better survive to produce larger numbers of offspring are considered more fit than others who do not.
    The Fittest Survive
  • 33. Darwin Today… Natural Selection in action … causes a frequency of certain alleles in a population to increase or decrease over time!
  • 34.  
  • 35.  
  • 36. Click the Link Below to Access the Cartoon
    • http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/article/0_0_0/sneakermales_01
    • Read the cartoon carefully and answer the discussion questions on a separate sheet of paper.
  • 37. Speciation Results in Biodiversity
  • 38. Speciation
    • Natural Selection modifies populations. Some evolutionary changes are so great that some organisms can no longer interbreed with the original population
    • A new species results
    • Species
      • An interbreeding population of organisms that can produce healthy, fertile offspring
  • 39. Reproductive Barriers and Speciation
    • Prezygotic: gametes never meet and fuse
      • Geographic isolation (allopatric speciation)
      • Ecological isolation
      • Behavioral isolation (lacewing songs)
      • Mechanical isolation
      • Seasonal isolation
    • Postzygotic: genetic differences manifest
      • Hybrid inviability
      • Hybrid sterility (tigons and ligers)
  • 40. Geographic Isolation
    • 2 populations separated by geographic barriers (rivers, mountains, bodies of water)
      • Abert Squirrel vs. Kaibab Squirrel
  • 41.  
  • 42. Temporal Isolation (Seasonal)
    • Species reproduce at different times
  • 43. Behavioral Isolation
    • Differences in courtship rituals or other types of behavior
      • Songs of birds
  • 44. Behavioral Isolation
  • 45. Mechanical Isolation
    • Mating/Pollination is often impossible between different animal/plant species because of the incompatible shape and size of the reproductive structures.
    • Size Does Matter!
    • Example – Black and White Sage Plants
  • 46.  
  • 47. Black sage and white sage plants invite different pollinators
    • White sage flowers have large landing platforms for large pollinators causing the large pollinators to brush against the stamens, but the small ones usually don’t.
    • Black sage flowers have small landing platform for small pollinators. Therefore, the small pollinators cannot spread pollen to the white sage flowers therefore cross pollination is no longer possible.
  • 48. Two populations live in different habitats and mating occurs in those habitats, thus their own gene pool. Land Iguana Marine Iguana Ecological Isolation
  • 49. After Mating Genetic Differences Occur
    • Hybrid sterility (tigons and ligers)
      • (Horse and a donkey = mule – sterile)
  • 50. Patterns in Evolution
    • Adaptive Radiation
      • Development of numerous new species from a common ancestor in diverse environments
      • Darwin’s Finches (Origin of Species Activity)
  • 51.
    • Gradualism
    • Punctuated Equilibrium
  • 52. Evolution Produces Biodiversity
  • 53. Evolution Produces Diversity
    • All living things are classified by characteristics into 6 kingdoms of life
  • 54. Archaebacteria
    • Autotrophic and heterotrophic species
    • Unicellular
    • Prokaryotic
    • Cell wall w/o Peptidoglycan
    • Some mobile
    • Ancient bacteria
    • Live in extreme environments (extremeophiles)
    • Methanogens, Halophiles, Thermoacidophiles
  • 55. Eubacteria
    • Autotrophic and heterotrophic
    • Unicellular
    • Prokaryotic
    • Cell wall with Peptidoglycan
    • Some mobile
    • True bacteria
    • E. coli, Streptococcus
  • 56. Protist
    • Autotrophic and heterotrophic
    • Mostly multicellular
    • Eukaryotic
    • Cell wall on most
    • Some mobile
    • “ Odds and ends” Kingdom
    • Amoeba, Paramecium
  • 57. Fungi
    • Heterotrophic
    • Mostly multicellular
    • Eukaryotic
    • Cell wall made of chitin
    • Immobile
    • Mostly live on decaying organic matter
    • Fungi, yeast, mold
  • 58. Plant
    • Autotrophic
    • Multicellular
    • Eukaryotic
    • Cell wall made of cellulose
    • Immobile
    • Produce oxygen through photosynthesis
    • Trees, shrubs, grasses, flowers
  • 59. Animal
    • Heterotrophic
    • Multicellular
    • Eukaryotic
    • No Cell Wall
    • Mobile
    • Mammals, insects, birds, reptiles, sponges, worms
  • 60. Taxonomy
    • Classification and naming of organisms
    • 7 Taxonomic Groupings from most inclusive to most specific:
      • Kingdom
      • Phylum
      • Class
      • Order
      • Family
      • Genus
      • Species
    “ Kings play chess on fine green silk”
  • 61. Linnean Taxonomy
    • Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778)
    • Binomial nomenclature (2 name naming)
    • Genus and species to make the scientific name
    • Provides a common name that can be used by all biologists regardless of their native language.
  • 62.
    • Example: human vs. chimpanzee
      • Kingdom animalia animalia
      • Phylum chordata chordata
      • Class mammalia mammalia
      • Order primata primata
      • Family hominidae hominidae
      • Genus homo pan
      • Species sapiens troglodytes
    • Homo sapiens and Pan troglodytes
    • Classification activity
    Linnean Taxonomy
  • 63. Evolution Evidence to Support Evolution
  • 64.
    • The Origin of Life
    • Geology
    • The Fossil Record
    • Comparative Embryology
    • Comparative Biochemistry
    • Comparative Anatomy
    • Isn’t Evolution Just a Theory?
    Scientists from many disciplines including biology, chemistry, physics, geology, and paleontology have contributed to the case for evolution! Evidence to Support Evolution
  • 65. The Origin of Life
    • Origin of the Universe
    • Big Bang
    Evidence to Support Evolution
  • 66.
    • Early Earth
    • Evolution Starts Up: Chemical Evolution
    • Heterotroph Hypothesis: Molecules of life arose from inorganic building blocks
  • 67. The Miller-Urey Experiment
    • Studied Molecules Present at Time of Early Earth
    • Methane, Ammonia, Carbon Dioxide, Water Vapor
    • Mixed Molecules in Reaction Chamber
    • Sparked with Electricity to Simulate Lightning
    • Exposed Mixture to UV Radiation to Simulate Cosmic Rays
    • Produced Basic Amino Acids and Organic Molecules
    Evidence to Support Evolution
  • 68. Miller-Urey Apparatus Evidence to Support Evolution
  • 69.  
  • 70. Biological Evolution
    • RNA as a information molecule and catalyst
    • Endosymbiotic Theory
      • Mitochondria and chloroplasts were originally free living prokaryotic cells
      • Both have own DNA and ribosomes
      • Joined together to cooperate
  • 71. Geology
    • The Study of the Earth and Rocks
    • Early Ideas About Earth:
      • People believed Earth was only a few thousand years old
      • People believed that rocks and geological features were shaped by catastrophic events and rarely changed
    Evidence to Support Evolution
  • 72. Geology
    • In the 18 th and 19 th Century Scientists Studied Geology in Great Detail
      • Old Earth , Ancient Life: Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon
    Evidence to Support Evolution
  • 73.
    • Charles Lyell: The Principles of Geology
    • Earth is Changed by Weather and Natural Processes like Volcanoes and Erosion
    • Takes a Very Long Time!
    • Gradualism and Uniformitarrianism
  • 74.  
  • 75.  
  • 76.
    • Continental Drift
      • Over millions of years 1 original continent Pangea drifted apart to make our modern continents
      • Continental drift is gradual “gradualism”
  • 77. Sea Floor Spreading
  • 78.  
  • 79. Plate Tectonics
  • 80. Geology
    • These ideas refute the idea that the Earth is only a few thousand years old
    • Provides long time necessary for evolution
    • Backed up by radiometric dating
      • The Earth is approximately 4.6 Billion Years Old
      • 4,600,000,000 years is a long time!
    Evidence to Support Evolution
  • 81.  
  • 82. Direct Evidence of Evolution
  • 83. The Fossil Record
    • Fossils are the preserved remains of ancient organisms
      • Provide information about past organisms
      • Shows that many diverse organisms lived at different times in Earth’s History
    Evidence to Support Evolution                                     
  • 84.
    • Preserved remains or traces of ancient organisms
      • Examples:
    The Fossil Record
  • 85. The Fossil Record
    • Provide a record of past species
    • Important source of information for determining ancestry and patterns of evolution
    Fossil Archaeopteryx
  • 86. What does the fossil record tell us? http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/evolution/library/04/3/quicktime/l_043_01.html
      • What past life looked like
      • What past habitats were like and changes that have occurred
      • That diverse organisms lived on earth at different times
      • New species evolved
      • Some species became extinct
      • Earliest life forms were aquatic
      • Earliest life forms were simple in structure
  • 87. Missing Link?
  • 88. The Fossil Record
    • Taphonomy: The Formation of Fossils
      • Fossils form in sedimentary rock
      • Dead organisms covered by sand and silt
      • Sediments are passed into bone by pressure from above (fossils form in sedimentary rock)
      • Video
    Evidence to Support Evolution
  • 89. Determining the Age of Fossils
    • Relative Dating: Technique used by scientists to determine the age of fossils relative to fossils in other layers of rock
      • Different layers represent different geologic periods
      • Older fossils found in lower layers, newer fossils found in upper layers
      • Cannot determine the actual age of the fossil!
    Evidence to Support Evolution
  • 90. Relative Dating of Fossils
  • 91.  
  • 92. Determining the Age of Fossils
    • Radioactive Dating: Process by which traces of radioactive elements are analyzed to calculate the actual age of a fossil
    • Many radioactive elements can be used as geologic clocks. Each radioactive element decays at its own nearly constant rate. Once this rate is known, geologists can estimate the length of time over which decay has been occurring by measuring the amount of radioactive parent element and the amount of stable daughter elements
    • Video
    Evidence to Support Evolution
  • 93. Radioactive/Radiometric Dating
    • How it Works:
    • - radioactive elements (uranium,
    • Carbon14) break down/decay a specific rates = half life
    • - these rates are nearly constant
    • - the amount of radioactive decay that has taken place in a rock/fossil determines its age
  • 94. Scientist Measure the Age of the Earth
    • Radiometric Dating : way of estimating the age of the Earth!
    http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/evolution/library/03/3/quicktime/l_033_01.html
  • 95. Carbon-14 Dating - Determines the age of fossils of a biological origin up to approx. 50,000 years old. - used in dating things such as bone, cloth, wood, plant fibers, etc. 5,700 year is C 14 half-life
  • 96.  
  • 97. Half-life of carbon-14 is 5730 years
  • 98. Half-life of carbon-14 is 5730 years 22,920 11,460 28,650 17,190
  • 99. Radiometric Dating Evidence to Support Evolution Radioactive Parent Stable Daughter Half life Potassium 40 Argon 40 1.25 billion yrs Rubidium 87 Strontium 87 48.8 billion yrs Thorium 232 Lead 208 14 billion years Uranium 235 Lead 207 704 million years Uranium 238 Lead 206 4.47 billion years Carbon 14 Nitrogen 14 5730 years
  • 100. The Geologic Time Scale
    • Based on fossil and geologic evidence
    • A record of the Earth’s past
    • Divided into Era, Period, and Epoch
    • Shows that life on Earth followed geologic change on Earth
      • Deep Time Activity
      • Interactive Time Scale
    Evidence to Support Evolution
  • 101. Comparative Embryology
    • Embryos are organisms at early stages of development
    Evidence to Support Evolution
  • 102. Comparative Embryology
    • All vertebrate embryos, including humans, share features
      • Eye spot
        • (Evolution of the Human Eye)
      • Gill pouches
      • Notochord
    • Shows similar genetic ancestry
    • Video
    Evidence to Support Evolution
  • 103. Comparative Biochemistry
    • All life is based on organic chemistry
      • Carbon based compounds
    • All life uses same molecule as blueprint
      • DNA
    • Similar chemical processes
      • Bacteria, algae, and plants all do photosynthesis
    • Similar organisms have similar genetic code
      • Humans and chimpanzees share nearly identical genes (98.4% identical gene sequences) Video
    Evidence to Support Evolution
  • 104. Anatomy and Comparative Anatomy
    • Vestigial Organs
      • Organs inherited but not used by modern organisms
      • Present but greatly reduced in modern organisms
      • Hip bone in python
      • Appendix in human
      • Tail bone (cocyx) in human
    Evidence to Support Evolution
  • 105. Anatomy: Homologous Structures
    • Similar parts of different organisms, often quite dissimilar in purpose, that developed from the same ancestral body parts (Video)
    • Divergent evolution
    Evidence to Support Evolution
  • 106. Anatomy: Analogous Structures
    • Similar in purpose, but not inherited from a recent common ancestor
    • Environment selected for trait
      • Wings of birds and insects
    • Convergent evolution
    Evidence to Support Evolution
  • 107. Summary
    • There is overwhelming evidence to support the Theory of Evolution
    • Evidence comes from disciplines as varied as biology, geology, chemistry, physics, astronomy, and paleontology
    • Evolution has produced the great beauty and diversity of life on Earth over the last 4 billion years
    Evidence to Support Evolution
  • 108. Human Evolution                          
  • 109. Explore Human Evolution
    • View the Becoming Human broadband documentary
      • As you view each segment, visit the related exhibits to further explore this topic
    • Go to the Learning Center and select the “Calculating Cousins” activity
    • Go to the Learning Center and select the “Chromosome Connection” activity
    • Go to the Learning Center and select the “Building Bodies” activity
  • 110. The Order Primate
    • Characteristics of Primates
      • Strong hands and opposable thumbs
      • Free-moving shoulder joint
      • Forward facing eyes and stereoscopic vision
      • Intelligence/larger brain
      • Social complexity
  • 111. What Characteristics do Humans Have?
    • All of those of primates, plus
      • Upright posture and bipedal
      • Use of tools and technology
      • Advanced intelligence
      • Complex communication and speech
  • 112. The Steps to Human Evolution
    • Terrestrialization
    • Bipedal (Walking on all two’s)
    • Increased Brain Size
    • Civilization
    • Take a look at the Human family tree
  • 113. The Hominid Family
    • Each year new fossils are found to add to the Hominid family tree
    • Most fossils of early humans are found in Africa and lower Asia
    • Most well understood members include genus Australopithecus (extinct) and genus Homo
    • Solve the Riddle of the Bones
  • 114. Genus Australopithecus
    • First human ancestor to live on the ground and walk on two legs
      • As evidenced by the Laetoli footprints
    • Ape-like jaw
    • Small brain
    • Short stature
    • Found only in South and East Africa
  • 115. The Australopithecines
    • A. anamesis 4 MYA
    • A. afarensis 3.2 MYA (Finding “Lucy”)
    • A. africanus 2.5 MYA
    • A. robustus 2 MYA
    • A. boisei 2 MYA
  • 116. Genus Homo
    • More modern hominids that exhibited major evolutionary steps
      • Increased brain size
      • Use of tools
      • Use of fire
      • Use of shelter
      • Religion
      • Language and civilization
  • 117. Homo habilis “The Tool Man”
    • Approx. 2.5 MYA
    • Brain ½ size of modern human
    • First to make and use stone tools and weapons
  • 118. Homo erectus “The Upright Man”
    • Direct ancestor of modern humans
    • Widespread in Africa and Asia by 1 MYA
    • Evidence of use of shelter and fire
  • 119. Homo sapiens “The Wise Man”
    • Most likely evolved from H. erectus as early as 400,000 years ago
    • Greatly increased brain size
    • Consisted of 2 groups
      • Neanderthal
      • Cro-Magnon/modern H. sapiens
  • 120. Neanderthals
    • Found in Neander Valley in Germany
    • Fossils found throughout Europe, Middle East, and Asia from 150,000-30,000 years ago
    • Large bodies and brains
    • Evidenced painting, religion, complex social structure
    • “ Cave man”
  • 121. Cro Magnons and Fully Modern Humans
    • First early modern H. sapiens appear about 130,000 years ago
    • Thinner bones, smaller jaws, higher skull with little or no brow ridge, and larger brains
    • Cave art shows complex religion and culture
    • Lived alongside Neanderthal for several thousand years, but eventually out-competed them
  • 122.