Anatomy and Physiology; Introduction to the human body

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A&P terminology introduced, a brief history of the study of anatomy, body systems, life processes, homeostasis, positive and negative feedback systems, directional terms and regions of the body terminology are introduced

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  • The study of anatomy begins at least as early as 1600 BCE, the date of the Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus. This treatise shows that the heart, its vessels, liver, spleen, kidneys, hypothalamus,uterus and bladder were recognized, and that the blood vessels were known to emanate from the heart. Other vessels are described, some carrying air, some mucus, and two to the right ear are said to carry the "breath of life", while two to the left ear the "breath of death". The Ebers Papyrus (c. 1550 BCE) features a treatise on the heart. It notes that the heart is the center of the blood supply, with vessels attached for every member of the body. The Egyptians seem to have known little about the function of the kidneys and made the heart the meeting point of a number of vessels which carried all the fluids of the body – blood, tears, urine and semen. However, they did not have a theory as to where saliva and sweat came from.
  • Many medical texts by various authors are collected in the Hippocratic Corpus, none of which can definitely be ascribed to Hippocrates himself. The texts show an understanding ofmusculoskeletal structure, and the beginnings of understanding of the function of certain organs, such as the kidneys. The tricuspid valve of the heart and its function is documented in the treatiseOn the Heart.In the 4th century BCE, Aristotle and several contemporaries produced a more empirically founded system, based on animal dissection. Around this time, Praxagoras is credited as the first to identify the difference between arteries and veins, and the relations between organs are described more accurately than in previous works.The first use of human cadavers for anatomical research occurred later in the 4th century BCE when Herophilos and Erasistratus gained permission to perform live dissections, or vivisection, on criminals in Alexandria under the auspices of the Ptolemaic dynasty. Herophilos in particular developed a body of anatomical knowledge much more informed by the actual structure of the human body than previous works had been.
  • Humorism, or humoralism, is a now discredited theory of the makeup and workings of the human body, adopted by Ancient Greek and Roman physicians and philosophers, positing that an excess or deficiency of any of four distinct bodily fluids in a person directly influences theirtemperament and health. From Hippocrates onward, the humoral theory was adopted by Greek, Roman and Persian physicians , and became the most commonly held view of the human body among European physicians until the advent of modern medical research in the nineteenth century.The four humors of Hippocratic medicine are black bile (Gk. melanchole), yellow bile (Gk. chole), phlegm (Gk. phlegma), and blood (Gk. haima), and each corresponds to one of the traditional four temperaments
  • He traveled extensively, exposing himself to a wide variety of medical theories and discoveries before settling inRome, where he served prominent members of Roman society and eventually was given the position of personal physician to several emperors.Galen's understanding of anatomy and medicine was principally influenced by the then-current theory of humorism, as advanced by many ancient Greekphysicians such as Hippocrates. His theories dominated and influenced Western medical science for more than 1,300 years. His anatomical reports, based mainly on dissection of monkeys, especially the Barbary Macaque, and pigs, remained uncontested until 1543,
  • David is a masterpiece of Renaissance sculpture created between 1501 and 1504, by the Italian artist Michelangelo. It is a 5.17-metre (17.0 ft)[1]marble statue of a standing male nude. The statue represents the Biblical hero David, a favoured subject in the art of Florence.[2] Originally commissioned as one of a series of statues of prophets to be positioned along the roofline of the east end of Florence Cathedral, the statue was instead placed in a public square, outside the Palazzo dellaSignoria, the seat of civic government in Florence, where it was unveiled on 8 September 1504.Because of the nature of the hero that it represented, it soon came to symbolize the defense of civil liberties embodied in the Florentine Republic, an independent city-state threatened on all sides by more powerful rival states and by the hegemony of the Medici family. The eyes of David, with a warning glare, were turned towards Rome.[3] The statue was moved to the Accademia Gallery in Florence in 1873, and later replaced at the original location by a replica.
  • Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564), a native of Brussels, was descended from a family of prominent physicians in city of Wesel in the Duchy of Cleves. As a young man, he studied medicine in Montpellier and Paris and later moved to Louvain to teach anatomy. After serving as an army surgeon in France, he moved to Padua in 1537, where he became a professor of anatomy. In 1543, his famousDecorporishumanifabricalibriseptem (Seven books on the fabric of the human body) was published, for which he gained both fame and notoriety. That same year he was called to the court of Charles V, for whom he served as a court physician. He traveled Europe, from Brussels and Basel to Madrid and the court of Philip II of Spain. He later took up a pilgrimage to Jerusalem, but while in Cyprus he was called back to Padua to take an honored chair in anatomy. On his return, he was shipwrecked on the Greek island of Zante and died there on October 15, 1564.Vesalius' De corporishumanifabricalibriseptem is one of the most influential medical texts ever printed, not only because of the scientific methods used to produce it, but because of the artistic renderings of the anatomist's findings. Although he relied heavily upon Galen, at times translating his words exactly, Vesalius performed his own careful dissections and observed the body in great detail, confirming and refuting many of Galen's anatomical and physiological tenets. His peers reacted strongly to his decision to question Galen, and he received praise and condemnation
  •  Although Leonardo is recognised as one of the greatest artists of the Renaissance, he was also one of the most original and perceptive anatomists of all time.  The exhibition tells the story of his greatest challenge as he embarked upon a campaign of dissection in hospitals and medical schools to investigate bones, muscles, vessels and organs.  Had Leonardo’s studies been published, they would have formed the most influential work on the human body ever produced.  Some of his findings were not to be repeated for hundreds of years.On Leonardo’s death in 1519, his drawings remained unpublished and were effectively lost to the world until the 20th century.  Instead, in 1543, the Flemish anatomist Andreas Vesalius published his treatise, De humanicorporisfabrica (‘On the fabric of the human body’) which became the most important work on anatomy ever published – to this day anatomical history is divided into pre- and post-Vesalian periods.
  • Dis-ease when all or part of body is not functioning normally in order to maintain homeostasis. local disease systemic disease symptoms – changes – are indications of disease (pain, nausea,) signs – changes – subjective (swelling, fever, rash) syndrome – several symptoms – signs of certain diseases epidemiology – study of why, where, and when diseases occur and how they are transmitted pharmacology – study of how drugs can treat disease diagnosis – distinguishing one disease from others, after medical history and exams are completed) measurements are frequently made in determination of disease
  • De humanicorporisfabricalibriseptem (On the fabric of the human body in seven books) is a textbook of human anatomy written by Andreas Vesalius (1514–1564) in 1543
  • Nine region designation used for anatomical study, quadrant designation is used to locate site of pain, tumor or other abnormality
  • Anatomy and Physiology; Introduction to the human body

    1. 1. Anatomy and Physiology An Introduction to the human body
    2. 2. The language of this course and Anatomy v. Physiology Subdisciplines of Anatomy Levels of Organization Characteristics & life processes of the living human organism Body systems and a brief history of the study of anatomy Homeostasis and control mechanisms of homeostasis Anatomical position Body planes and directional terminology Body regions and terminology Body cavities and their membranes Medical imaging methods/techniques for anatomical study
    3. 3. A & P Terminology Greek // Latin Cornerstone of learning anatomy Prefix + Suffix = Term with a meaning Gastro + ectomy = Gastrectomy “Stomach” + “to cut out” = Stomach removal
    4. 4. Some prefixes / suffixes are remarkably similar and easily confused Brachi- = Arm Brachy- = Short Brady- = Slow Tachy- = Fast A & P Terminology Alg- = Pain Angi- = Blood vessel
    5. 5. Some word origins are easily confused Gland (Aden-) Disease (Path-) Organ (Viscer-) Poison (Tox-) A & P Terminology
    6. 6. Some prefixes to get you started Organs Gastr- Stomach Hepa- Liver Nephr- Kidney Entero- Instestine Cerebro- Brain Cardio- Heart Pneumo- Lung Derm- // Cut- Skin A & P Terminology Tissues Chondr- Cartilage Os- Bone Myo- Muscle Neuro- Nerves/ Nervous Lip- // Lipo- Fat
    7. 7. Anatomy – the study of the structure of body parts and their relationships to one another Gross or macroscopic Microscopic Developmental Physiology – study of the function of the structures Anatomy & physiology defined
    8. 8. Anatomy relates to physiology Best (evolutionarily) adapted structures are those that lead to best performance of functions for life (survival). What a structure does depends on its specific form
    9. 9. Gross Anatomy Regional – all structures in one part of the body (such as the abdomen or leg) Systemic – gross anatomy of the body studied by system Surface – study of internal structures as they relate to the overlying skin
    10. 10. Microscopic Anatomy Cytology – study of the cell Histology – study of tissues
    11. 11. Specialized Branches of Anatomy Pathological anatomy – study of structural changes caused by disease Radiographic anatomy – study of internal structures as visualized by X ray, CT scan or MRI, etc. Molecular biology – study of anatomical structures at a sub-cellular level
    12. 12. Levels of Structural Organization
    13. 13. Levels of Structural Organization Chemical – atoms combined to form molecules Cellular – cells are made of molecules Tissue – consists of similar types of cells Organ – made up of different types of tissues Organ system – consists of different organs that work closely together Organism – made up of the organ systems
    14. 14. Anatomy – a historical perspective Edwin – Smith Surgical Papyrus Egypt 1500 BCE Written recognition of the heart and its emanating vessels, liver spleen, kidneys, hypothal amus, uterus and bladder. Also recognized structures that carried air
    15. 15. Anatomy – a historical perspective Hippocratic Collection Greece 4th cent BCE
    16. 16. Anatomy – a historical perspective Humorism Discredited theory adopted by ancient Greek and Roman physicians and philosphers Commonly held view by European Physicians until modern research in 19th cent.
    17. 17. Anatomy – a historical perspective Claudius Galenius (Claude Galen) Roman AD 129-200 Largely influenced by humorism, but also stated importance of observation and dissection Copious amount of published work; perhaps one of the most prolific writers of antiquity
    18. 18. Michaelangelo’s David 1501-1504 Anatomy – a historical perspective
    19. 19. Anatomy – a historical perspective Andreas Visalius 1514 - 1564 De Humani Corporis Fabrica Libri Septum 1543 Possible due to innovations in art and printing techniques such as ability to draw perspective and wood cut plates
    20. 20. Anatomy – a historical perspective Leonardo Da Vinci 1452-1519 Techniques and understanding years ahead of his time Never published, his work effectively lost until the 20th cent Much of his work is owned by the Queen of England
    21. 21. Life Processes Metabolism (chem. process) Catabolism – molecular decomposition Anabolism – synthesis of molecules Ingestion (food intake) Digestion (decomp nutrient molecules) Absorption (osmosis /diffusion) Assimilation (nutrients form other needed substances)
    22. 22. Life Processes Respiration (energy release) Excitability (respond to environment) Conductivity (carry/transmit effects of stimuli (i.e. nerve signal transduction)) Growth (increase no. of cells) Differentiation (stem cells specialize) Reproduction (new cells or new organisms form)
    23. 23. Homeostasis Maintenance of a relatively stable internal environment in an ever-changing outside world Internal environment of the body is in a dynamic state of equilibrium Chemical, thermal, and neural factors interact to maintain homeostasis
    24. 24. Homeostasis Disruption to a controlled condition (i.e. blood glucose level) stimulates a feedback system. Feedback system composed of Receptor Control center Effector Nervous and Endocrine systems work to maintain homeostasis // controlled conditions
    25. 25. Feedback systems Negative feedback system Reverses a change in a controlled system Positive feedback system Reinforces change in a controlled condition Homeostasis mostly relies on neg feedback Disease is failure of homeostatic control.
    26. 26. Negative feedback
    27. 27. Positive Feedback
    28. 28. Anatomical Position Body erect Feet slightly apart Palms facing forward Thumbs point away from body
    29. 29. Directional Terms
    30. 30. Directional Terms Superior and inferior – toward and away from the head, respectively Anterior and posterior – toward the front and back of the body Medial, lateral, and intermediate – toward the midline, away from the midline, and between a more medial and lateral structure
    31. 31. Directional Terms Proximal and distal – closer to and farther from the origin of the body Superficial and deep – toward and away from the body surface
    32. 32. Directional Terms Ipsilateral and contralateral – on the same and opposite side of the body from another structure, respectively.
    33. 33. Regional Terms: Anterior View Axial – head, neck, and trunk Appendicular – appendages or limbs Specific regional terminology
    34. 34. Regional Terms: Posterior View Figure 1.7b
    35. 35. Body Planes Sagittal – divides the body into right and left parts Midsagittal or medial – sagittal plane that lies on the midline Parasagittal – sagittal plane that does not lie along the midline
    36. 36. Body Planes Frontal or coronal – divides the body into anterior and posterior parts Transverse or horizontal (cross section) – divides the body into superior and inferior parts Oblique section – cuts made diagonally
    37. 37. Body Planes
    38. 38. Body Cavities Dorsal cavity contains the central nervous system, has two subdivisions: Cranial cavity is within the skull and encases the brain Vertebral cavity runs within the vertebral column and encases the spinal cord
    39. 39. Body Cavities
    40. 40. Body Cavities Ventral cavity houses the internal organs (viscera), and is divided into two subdivisions: Thoracic and Abdominopelvic cavities
    41. 41. Body Cavities Thoracic cavity is subdivided into pleural cavities, the mediastinum, and the pericardial cavity Pleural cavities – each houses a lung Mediastinum – contains the pericardial cavity, and surrounds the remaining thoracic organs (thymus gland, esophagus, trachea, bronchi and large blood vessels) Pericardial cavity – encloses the heart
    42. 42. Body Cavities The Abdominopelvic cavity is inferior to the thoracic cavity; separated by diaphragm Abdominal cavity – contains the stomach, sm. intestine, most of lg. intestine, spleen, liver, gall bladder, pancreas Pelvic cavity – lies within the pelvis and contains the bladder, reproductive organs, cecum, appendix, sigmoid colon and rectum
    43. 43. Cavity Membranes
    44. 44. Serous membranes of the pleural cavity Visceral pleura line surface of lungs Parietal pleura line the chest wall Serous membranes of the pericardial cavity Visceral pericardium covers the heart Parietal pericardium lines chest wall Serous membranes of the abdominal cavity Visceral / Parietal peritoneum Serous fluid separates the serosae
    45. 45. Other Body Cavities Oral and digestive – mouth and cavities of the digestive organs Nasal –located within and posterior to the nose Orbital – house the eyes Middle ear – contain bones (ossicles) that transmit sound vibrations Synovial – joint cavities
    46. 46. Abdominopelvic Cavity Regions Umbilical Epigastric Hypogastric Right and left iliac or inguinal Right and left lumbar Right and left hypochondriac
    47. 47. Organs of the Abdominopelvic Regions Figure 1.11b
    48. 48. Medical Imaging Allows for visualization of structures inside the body. Helpful for diagnosis of disorders Radiography (x-ray) Computerized tomography (CT) Digital subtraction angiography Sonography Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) Positron emission tomography (PET)

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