4 tissue types and epithelium

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4 tissue types and epithelium

  1. 1. The Tissue Level of Organization Four main types of tissue Epithelial tissue
  2. 2. Four Tissue Types • Epithelial (epithelium) • Connective • Muscle • Nervous
  3. 3. Function of Epithelial tissue • Covers body surfaces • Lines body cavities and ducts • Forms glands
  4. 4. Functions of Connective Tissue • Protects and supports body and organs • Binds organs together • Storage of energy reserve
  5. 5. Function of Muscular Tissue • Generate force for movement • Body temperature maintenance
  6. 6. Functions of Nervous Tissue • Initiates nerve impulses • Body coordination
  7. 7. Epithelium • Two types of epithelium – Covering and lining – Glandular
  8. 8. Covering and lining epithelium • Characterized by – cell arrangement – cell shape
  9. 9. Epithelial cell arrangements • Simple – One layer of cells • Stratified – Two or more layers of cells • Pseudostratified – One layer of cells; appears to have multiple layers
  10. 10. Epithelial cell shapes • Squamous – Flat, thin, arranged like floor tiles. • Shape allows for rapid transport • Cuboidal – Shaped like cubes (or hexagons) • Secretion and absorption
  11. 11. Epithelial cell shapes • Columnar – Tall and cylindrical • Protect underlying layers of tissue • May also have cilia, may also secrete and absorb materials • Transitional – Shape can change (from columnar to flat) • Allows body parts to stretch or expand or move
  12. 12. Simple squamous epithelium
  13. 13. Simple cuboidal epithelium
  14. 14. Simple columnar epithelium
  15. 15. Pseudostratified columnar epithelium
  16. 16. Transitional epithelium
  17. 17. Stratified squamous epithelium
  18. 18. Stratified cuboidal epithelium • Rare • Found in ducts of some glands (mammary, sweat, salivary, pancreas)
  19. 19. Stratified columnar epithelium • Rare • Found only in male urethra and lactiferous ducts
  20. 20. Epithelial structure • Little or no space between cells • Cells meet at “junctions”. • Avascular
  21. 21. Epithelial structure • Held in place by underlying connective tissue • Nutrients supplied by underlying tissue
  22. 22. Glandular epithelium • Has cells that are specialized to produce and secrete substances into ducts or into body fluids • gland = 1 or more cuboidal or columnar cell • secretion • salivary glands, sweat glands, endocrine glands
  23. 23. Exocrine and Endocrine gland • Endocrine – ductless – secrete products directly into blood. – Pituitary, thyroid, adrenal glands • Exocrine – secretions sent into ducts at skin surface or organ.
  24. 24. Types of ducts
  25. 25. Exocrine glands classified by function • Holocrine – Cell dies as it secretes; replaced by new cell • Merocrine – Cell secretes via exocytosis Golgi produced secretory vesicles • Apocrine – Part of cell pinches off and becomes secretion. Cell repair itself and repeats

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