4 tissue types and epithelium
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4 tissue types and epithelium






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4 tissue types and epithelium 4 tissue types and epithelium Presentation Transcript

  • The Tissue Level of Organization Four main types of tissue Epithelial tissue
  • Four Tissue Types • Epithelial (epithelium) • Connective • Muscle • Nervous
  • Function of Epithelial tissue • Covers body surfaces • Lines body cavities and ducts • Forms glands
  • Functions of Connective Tissue • Protects and supports body and organs • Binds organs together • Storage of energy reserve
  • Function of Muscular Tissue • Generate force for movement • Body temperature maintenance
  • Functions of Nervous Tissue • Initiates nerve impulses • Body coordination
  • Epithelium • Two types of epithelium – Covering and lining – Glandular
  • Covering and lining epithelium • Characterized by – cell arrangement – cell shape
  • Epithelial cell arrangements • Simple – One layer of cells • Stratified – Two or more layers of cells • Pseudostratified – One layer of cells; appears to have multiple layers
  • Epithelial cell shapes • Squamous – Flat, thin, arranged like floor tiles. • Shape allows for rapid transport • Cuboidal – Shaped like cubes (or hexagons) • Secretion and absorption
  • Epithelial cell shapes • Columnar – Tall and cylindrical • Protect underlying layers of tissue • May also have cilia, may also secrete and absorb materials • Transitional – Shape can change (from columnar to flat) • Allows body parts to stretch or expand or move
  • Simple squamous epithelium
  • Simple cuboidal epithelium
  • Simple columnar epithelium
  • Pseudostratified columnar epithelium
  • Transitional epithelium
  • Stratified squamous epithelium
  • Stratified cuboidal epithelium • Rare • Found in ducts of some glands (mammary, sweat, salivary, pancreas)
  • Stratified columnar epithelium • Rare • Found only in male urethra and lactiferous ducts
  • Epithelial structure • Little or no space between cells • Cells meet at “junctions”. • Avascular
  • Epithelial structure • Held in place by underlying connective tissue • Nutrients supplied by underlying tissue
  • Glandular epithelium • Has cells that are specialized to produce and secrete substances into ducts or into body fluids • gland = 1 or more cuboidal or columnar cell • secretion • salivary glands, sweat glands, endocrine glands
  • Exocrine and Endocrine gland • Endocrine – ductless – secrete products directly into blood. – Pituitary, thyroid, adrenal glands • Exocrine – secretions sent into ducts at skin surface or organ.
  • Types of ducts
  • Exocrine glands classified by function • Holocrine – Cell dies as it secretes; replaced by new cell • Merocrine – Cell secretes via exocytosis Golgi produced secretory vesicles • Apocrine – Part of cell pinches off and becomes secretion. Cell repair itself and repeats