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Literature Searching,
Referencing &
Citation
and Plagiarism
3
Jamie Halstead
Information Specialist
Natural & Mathematical...
Referencing &
Citation
and Avoiding
Plagiarism
4
Referencing & Citation and Avoiding
Plagiarism
• What is citation and why do it?
• What is plagiarism and why is it so ser...
What You Should Cite?
• Direct quotes
– Part of a sentence, built into your sentences
– Long quotes that are introduced by...
Why Cite References?
• To avoid plagiarism
• To get credit for the research you have done
• To substantiate what you have ...
•The presentation of another person’s thoughts or
words as though they were your own
•Direct quotations from published or ...
Reasons Why Students Plagiarise
• Cynical plagiarism
• Time pressure
• Poor notes
• Lack of subject knowledge
• Ignorance ...
• Plagiarism is a form of cheating and a serious
academic offence
• College Plagiarism Policy available from Onespace /
Po...
• Turnitin (http://www.submit.ac.uk) may be used to
check your work
• More information on OneSpace at
http://www.kcl.ac.uk...
Avoiding The Pitfalls
•Time management
•Note taking
•Understanding
•Your voice / contribution
Note Taking
• In your notes identify:
–direct quotes (“Q”) and
–paraphrases (“P”) or
–your own ideas (“Me”)
•Make sure to ...
Lack Of Understanding
•Not understanding your notes
•Assuming that you should understand the subject
and will be “found ou...
Voice
•Can my reader tell which
ideas are mine and which
belong to other people?
•Have I represented other
peoples work fa...
- Choosing a topic to research
- Choosing what information to read
- Agreeing / disagreeing with what you have read /
quot...
Citation Guidelines
• Citation in text
– Paraphrases
– Quotes
•Reference & bibliography
•User Guide on Onespace at
http://...
•“There is little doubt that future developments in string theory
will utilize many mathematical tools and concepts that d...
•“There is little doubt that future developments in string theory
will utilize many mathematical tools and concepts that d...
•“There is little doubt that future developments in string theory
will utilize many mathematical tools and concepts that d...
Quoting Tables, Diagrams & Equations
• To correctly reference equations, tables and diagrams you will
need to consider the...
Citing Secondary Sources
•Reference: U. Bossel Does a Hydrogen Economy Make Sense? Proceedings of the IEEE. Vol. 94, No. 1...
Writing a Bibliography/References
• Bibliography
– List of consulted readings, e.g. list of textbook sources,
studied whil...
Types Of References
•Book
•Book chapter
•Journal article
•E-journal article
•Electronic book
•Web page
•Images
•Illustrati...
• Author (surname and initials)
• Year of publication (in brackets)
• Title (in italics)
• Edition (only needed if 2nd
or ...
•Author (surname and initials)
•Year of publication (in brackets)
•Title of article (in quotation marks)
•Title of journal...
• Author
• Year that the site was last updated (in brackets)
• Title of website (in italics)
• Available at: URL
• (Access...
• Maughan Library and ISC Enquiry Desk
020 7848 1178/243
issenquiry@kcl.ac.uk
• Jamie Halstead
Jamie.halstead@kcl.ac.uk
Fu...
Finding Quality
Academic
Information
31
Finding Quality Academic Information
• Web sources and issues
• Journal papers
–Using databases to find them
32
• There’s so much on
the web that it’s hard
to find the good stuff
• Try Google Scholar
• Change your
preferences to link ...
• Good starting point?
• Health warning!
• Don’t rely on it for accuracy
• Always use authoritative sources
Wikipedia
34
• Journals when you have a reference
– Via the library catalogue
• Journals when you only have a topic
– Web of Knowledge
...
• Phrase Searching
– e.g. “robotic fingers”
• Truncation *
– e.g. Robot* retrieves robot, robotics, robots etc
• Wildcards...
Some Final
Reminders
37
• Senate House and other academic libraries
• Other libraries in London
• Specialist libraries (IET Library )
• British Li...
Summary
• Make sure you don’t plagiarise
• Use the library e-resources to find quality information
• Impress your tutors w...
Questions?
Jamie Halstead
Information Specialist for
Natural & Mathematical Sciences
Jamie.halstead@kcl.ac.uk
40
Plagiarism, referencing & citation & literature searching (informatics) slideshare
Plagiarism, referencing & citation & literature searching (informatics) slideshare
Plagiarism, referencing & citation & literature searching (informatics) slideshare
Plagiarism, referencing & citation & literature searching (informatics) slideshare
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  • Example from the introduction to one of my previous student reports. Showing students an example of citing and referencing in use clarifies concepts.
    (The 5 categories of intellectual property rights are common knowledge)
  • Abbreviated list of references from previous slide. Quotes and paraphrase used have been highlighted.
  • King’s official position (which they may have read)
  • Most students think they understand how to avoid plagiarism so why does it occur?
    These are the commonly accepted reasons for plagiarism. Cynical plagiarism is one of the less common reasons. Time pressure and lack of understanding are the most common.
    (From observation of the quiz that comes later in the lecture, the 93% have only a very basic understanding)
  • [General note taking is covered in PSE study skills.]
    Using this method when performing desktop research will save time later.
    What makes sense to the student when they write it may not do so in a few months time.
    [PSE students do not generally make use of bibliographic software]
  • Mention that in staff student liaison meetings, most complaints brought to each meeting (e.g. lecturer went too fast etc) could be better dealt with by talking to the lecturer.
    Over 50% of students find that they do not understand the subject/their report, so there is no stigma in asking for help.
    Also common is that students find it difficult to paraphrase an original author. This leads on to the concept of “voice” (next 2 slides)
  • With 40% of students using references they do not understand, can they represent other people’s work fairly?
    Students often confused about the idea of “contributing something of their own” or writing something original
  • Contributing something of your own includes all of the above. The scholars “voice” is the way a student synthesises the available information. This is what makes it original.
    Especially in the first year, students are not expected to be able to write as well as an expert. This will develop over their student career.
  • Hand out black and white cards ready to vote on the next slides (black = plagiarism/mis-citation, white = correct citation)
    All of the information on the following slides is on the website listed at the end of the presentation
  • Slide22: Incorrect: No reference to original author
  • Slide 21: Correct: Author referenced. Rewritten in own words
  • Slide23: Incorrect: First sentence not attributed to original author
  • Some lecturers conflate the two terms. Explain the difference
  • References are written in different ways for different sources. These are all explained on the website. The 3 most common are shown on the next three slides.
    The important thing is to be consistent
  • Not all of this information will be available to the student. At a bare minimum, the URL and date accessed will be enough if there is no other information available (although can the student rely upon that website’s information?)
  • Most students use Google but most are not aware of Google Scholar. Optional depending on group.
  • N.B. academics have different views on Wikipedia. Some are promoting it. Some are banning it!
    Our position is pragmatic – students use it so let’s help them use it intelligently.
    If you want a fun page try ‘Exploding whale’!
  • Customise library info.
    N.B. We can’t encourage everyone to register at BL without reason!
    Note new prices for ILLs!
  • Transcript of "Plagiarism, referencing & citation & literature searching (informatics) slideshare"

    1. 1. Literature Searching, Referencing & Citation and Plagiarism 3 Jamie Halstead Information Specialist Natural & Mathematical Sciences
    2. 2. Referencing & Citation and Avoiding Plagiarism 4
    3. 3. Referencing & Citation and Avoiding Plagiarism • What is citation and why do it? • What is plagiarism and why is it so serious? • How to avoid it • How to use other people’s work in your work • Writing references and bibliographies 5
    4. 4. What You Should Cite? • Direct quotes – Part of a sentence, built into your sentences – Long quotes that are introduced by your sentences – Block quotes (quotes of over 40 words) • Paraphrases – Somebody else’s idea in your words
    5. 5. Why Cite References? • To avoid plagiarism • To get credit for the research you have done • To substantiate what you have written • To enable others to follow up your research • To give credit to others for their work • To enable you to go back and check information
    6. 6. •The presentation of another person’s thoughts or words as though they were your own •Direct quotations from published or unpublished works of others (including lecture hand-outs) without proper citation. •Paraphrasing – expressing another person’s ideas of judgements in other words without proper acknowledgement What Is Plagiarism?
    7. 7. Reasons Why Students Plagiarise • Cynical plagiarism • Time pressure • Poor notes • Lack of subject knowledge • Ignorance of citation rules
    8. 8. • Plagiarism is a form of cheating and a serious academic offence • College Plagiarism Policy available from Onespace / Policy Zone • You will have signed the School’s ‘Statement on Plagiarism’ Kings College Rules On Plagiarism 12
    9. 9. • Turnitin (http://www.submit.ac.uk) may be used to check your work • More information on OneSpace at http://www.kcl.ac.uk/onespace/study/turnitin/ Turnitin 13
    10. 10. Avoiding The Pitfalls •Time management •Note taking •Understanding •Your voice / contribution
    11. 11. Note Taking • In your notes identify: –direct quotes (“Q”) and –paraphrases (“P”) or –your own ideas (“Me”) •Make sure to include –page number, –volume/ issue, –author and –article/book/journal title •Keep a working bibliography
    12. 12. Lack Of Understanding •Not understanding your notes •Assuming that you should understand the subject and will be “found out” if you ask for help •Can’t find a way to express an idea better than the original author
    13. 13. Voice •Can my reader tell which ideas are mine and which belong to other people? •Have I represented other peoples work fairly? •Have I contributed something of my own?
    14. 14. - Choosing a topic to research - Choosing what information to read - Agreeing / disagreeing with what you have read / quoted - Choosing what information to include/exclude - Developing your own writing style Your Contribution
    15. 15. Citation Guidelines • Citation in text – Paraphrases – Quotes •Reference & bibliography •User Guide on Onespace at http://www.kcl.ac.uk/content/1/c6/07/98/48/citing2009- 10FINAL1.pdf •Another suggested user guide http://www.cs.bham.ac.uk/~pxc/refs/index.html •Check with your lecturer
    16. 16. •“There is little doubt that future developments in string theory will utilize many mathematical tools and concepts that do not currently exist. The need for cutting-edge mathematics is promoting a very healthy relationship between large segments of the string theory and mathematics communities.” (Schwartz & Schwartz, 2004, p. 347). • In the future, string theory will use mathematical concepts which have yet to be invented. The need for new concepts is already producing co- operation between mathematicians and the string theory community. Paraphrasing (Incorrectly)
    17. 17. •“There is little doubt that future developments in string theory will utilize many mathematical tools and concepts that do not currently exist. The need for cutting-edge mathematics is promoting a very healthy relationship between large segments of the string theory and mathematics communities.” (Schwartz & Schwartz, 2004, p. 347) • Schwartz & Schwartz (2004, p 347) accept that in the future, string theory will use mathematical concepts which have yet to be invented and they argue that this need for new concepts is already producing co- operation between mathematicians and the string theory community. Paraphrasing (Correctly)
    18. 18. •“There is little doubt that future developments in string theory will utilize many mathematical tools and concepts that do not currently exist. The need for cutting-edge mathematics is promoting a very healthy relationship between large segments of the string theory and mathematics communities.” (Schwartz & Schwartz, 2004, p. 347) • In the future, string theory will use mathematical concepts which have yet to be invented. The need for new concepts is already producing co-operation between mathematicians and the string theory community (Schwartz & Schwartz, 2004). Paraphrasing (Incorrectly)
    19. 19. Quoting Tables, Diagrams & Equations • To correctly reference equations, tables and diagrams you will need to consider the following: – Equations, diagrams and tables = quotations in the text – Decide which steps of an equation to include and which to leave out
    20. 20. Citing Secondary Sources •Reference: U. Bossel Does a Hydrogen Economy Make Sense? Proceedings of the IEEE. Vol. 94, No. 10, October 2006 • E.g. Equations from other people’s work • Use primary sources where possible • If you use a secondary source, make this clear in your citation
    21. 21. Writing a Bibliography/References • Bibliography – List of consulted readings, e.g. list of textbook sources, studied while composing your work, but not specifically cited in the text – Usually presented in author order • Reference list – List of cited sources – Either •Numeric: superscript numbers1 ,with numbered reference list •Harvard: (author, year), with author order reference list
    22. 22. Types Of References •Book •Book chapter •Journal article •E-journal article •Electronic book •Web page •Images •Illustrations and tables •Computer programme •Conference proceedings •Conference papers •Standards and patents
    23. 23. • Author (surname and initials) • Year of publication (in brackets) • Title (in italics) • Edition (only needed if 2nd or later edition) • Place of publication • Publisher e.g. Schwarz P M, Schwarz J H. (2004). Special relativity: from Einstein to strings. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press Books
    24. 24. •Author (surname and initials) •Year of publication (in brackets) •Title of article (in quotation marks) •Title of journal (in italics) •Issue details (volume, issue number) •Page number(s) of whole article e.g. Du Sautoya M (2006). “Burden of proof”. New Scientist. Vol 191, Issue 2566: pp 41-43. Journal Articles
    25. 25. • Author • Year that the site was last updated (in brackets) • Title of website (in italics) • Available at: URL • (Accessed: date (in brackets) e.g. Purdue University Writing Lab (2006). Owl on-line writing lab. http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/589/01 (accessed: 09/08/2008). Websites
    26. 26. • Maughan Library and ISC Enquiry Desk 020 7848 1178/243 issenquiry@kcl.ac.uk • Jamie Halstead Jamie.halstead@kcl.ac.uk Further Information
    27. 27. Finding Quality Academic Information 31
    28. 28. Finding Quality Academic Information • Web sources and issues • Journal papers –Using databases to find them 32
    29. 29. • There’s so much on the web that it’s hard to find the good stuff • Try Google Scholar • Change your preferences to link to Kings e-journals Google 33
    30. 30. • Good starting point? • Health warning! • Don’t rely on it for accuracy • Always use authoritative sources Wikipedia 34
    31. 31. • Journals when you have a reference – Via the library catalogue • Journals when you only have a topic – Web of Knowledge – SciVerse – IEEE Xplore – ACM portal – Lecture Notes in Computer Science Finding Journal Information 35
    32. 32. • Phrase Searching – e.g. “robotic fingers” • Truncation * – e.g. Robot* retrieves robot, robotics, robots etc • Wildcards $ – E.g. colo$r retrieves colour and color Search Tips 36
    33. 33. Some Final Reminders 37
    34. 34. • Senate House and other academic libraries • Other libraries in London • Specialist libraries (IET Library ) • British Library • Inter Library Loans – £3.50 journal article – £6.50 book External Resources 38
    35. 35. Summary • Make sure you don’t plagiarise • Use the library e-resources to find quality information • Impress your tutors with your references and bibliography • Don’t leave it all to the last minute • Make sure you keep back up copies of your all work 39
    36. 36. Questions? Jamie Halstead Information Specialist for Natural & Mathematical Sciences Jamie.halstead@kcl.ac.uk 40
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