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Literature Searching, Referencing & Citation  and Plagiarism  Jamie Halstead Information Specialist  Natural & Mathematica...
Referencing & Citation and Avoiding Plagiarism
Referencing & Citation and Avoiding Plagiarism <ul><li>What is citation and why do it? </li></ul><ul><li>What is plagiaris...
What You Should Cite? <ul><li>Direct quotes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Part of a sentence, built into your sentences </li></ul>...
 
 
Why Cite References? <ul><li>To avoid plagiarism </li></ul><ul><li>To get credit for the research you have done </li></ul>...
<ul><li>The presentation of another person’s thoughts or words as though they were your own </li></ul><ul><li>Direct quota...
Reasons Why Students Plagiarise <ul><li>Cynical plagiarism </li></ul><ul><li>Time pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Poor notes </...
<ul><li>Plagiarism is a form of cheating and a serious academic offence </li></ul><ul><li>College Plagiarism Policy availa...
<ul><li>Turnitin ( http://www.submit.ac.uk )  may be used to check your work </li></ul><ul><li>More  information on OneSpa...
Avoiding The Pitfalls <ul><li>Time management </li></ul><ul><li>Note taking </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding </li></ul><ul>...
Note Taking <ul><li>In your notes identify:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>direct quotes (“Q”) and  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>par...
Lack Of Understanding <ul><li>Not understanding your notes </li></ul><ul><li>Assuming that you should understand the subje...
Voice <ul><li>Can my reader tell which ideas are mine and which belong to other people? </li></ul><ul><li>Have I represent...
<ul><li>- Choosing a topic to research </li></ul><ul><li>- Choosing what information to read </li></ul><ul><li>- Agreeing ...
Citation Guidelines <ul><li>Citation in text </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Paraphrases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quotes  </li></u...
<ul><li>“ There is little doubt that future developments in string theory will utilize many mathematical tools and concept...
<ul><li>“ There is little doubt that future developments in string theory will utilize many mathematical tools and concept...
<ul><li>“ There is little doubt that future developments in string theory will utilize many mathematical tools and concept...
Quoting Tables, Diagrams & Equations   <ul><li>To correctly reference equations, tables and diagrams you will  need to con...
Citing Secondary Sources <ul><li>Reference: U. Bossel  Does a Hydrogen Economy Make Sense?  Proceedings of the IEEE. Vol. ...
Writing a Bibliography/References <ul><li>Bibliography   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>List of consulted readings, e.g. list of te...
Types Of References <ul><li>Book </li></ul><ul><li>Book chapter </li></ul><ul><li>Journal article </li></ul><ul><li>E-jour...
<ul><li>Author (surname and initials) </li></ul><ul><li>Year of publication (in brackets) </li></ul><ul><li>Title (in ital...
<ul><li>Author (surname and initials) </li></ul><ul><li>Year of publication (in brackets) </li></ul><ul><li>Title of artic...
<ul><li>Author </li></ul><ul><li>Year that the site was last updated (in brackets) </li></ul><ul><li>Title of website (in ...
<ul><li>Maughan Library and ISC Enquiry Desk </li></ul><ul><ul><li>020 7848 1178/243 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>[email_add...
Finding Quality Academic Information
Finding Quality Academic Information <ul><li>Web sources and issues </li></ul><ul><li>Journal papers </li></ul><ul><ul><li...
<ul><li>There’s so much on the web that it’s hard to find the good stuff </li></ul><ul><li>Try Google Scholar </li></ul><u...
<ul><li>Good starting point </li></ul><ul><li>Health warning! </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t rely on it for accuracy </li></ul><u...
<ul><li>Journals when you have a reference </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Via the library catalogue </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Journals...
<ul><li>V W Maslen. Crystal ionic radii.  Proceedings of the Physical Society , 91(1):259–260, 1967. </li></ul><ul><li>Go ...
<ul><li>F. Thompson and J. K. Gagon. Fringe capacitance of a parallel-plate capacitor.  Physics Education , 17(2):80–82, 1...
<ul><li>Phrase Searching   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. “robotic fingers” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Truncation * </li></ul><ul>...
Some Final Reminders
<ul><li>Senate House  and other academic libraries </li></ul><ul><li>Other libraries in London </li></ul><ul><li>Specialis...
Summary <ul><li>Make sure you don’t plagiarise </li></ul><ul><li>Use the library e-resources to find quality information <...
Questions? <ul><li>Jamie Halstead </li></ul><ul><li>Information Specialist for  Natural & Mathematical Sciences </li></ul>...
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Literature Searching, Referencing & Citation and Plagiarism (2nd Year Physics)

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  • Physics citation and databases notes 12/08/10
  • Example from the introduction to one of my previous student reports. Showing students an example of citing and referencing in use clarifies concepts. (The 5 categories of intellectual property rights are common knowledge) Physics citation and databases notes 12/08/10
  • Abbreviated list of references from previous slide. Quotes and paraphrase used have been highlighted. Physics citation and databases notes 12/08/10
  • Physics citation and databases notes 12/08/10
  • King’s official position (which they may have read) Physics citation and databases notes 12/08/10
  • Most students think they understand how to avoid plagiarism so why does it occur? These are the commonly accepted reasons for plagiarism. Cynical plagiarism is one of the less common reasons. Time pressure and lack of understanding are the most common. (From observation of the quiz that comes later in the lecture, the 93% have only a very basic understanding) Physics citation and databases notes 12/08/10
  • Physics citation and databases notes 12/08/10
  • [General note taking is covered in PSE study skills.] Using this method when performing desktop research will save time later. What makes sense to the student when they write it may not do so in a few months time. [PSE students do not generally make use of bibliographic software] Physics citation and databases notes 12/08/10
  • Mention that in staff student liaison meetings, most complaints brought to each meeting (e.g. lecturer went too fast etc) could be better dealt with by talking to the lecturer. Over 50% of students find that they do not understand the subject/their report, so there is no stigma in asking for help. Also common is that students find it difficult to paraphrase an original author. This leads on to the concept of “voice” (next 2 slides) Physics citation and databases notes 12/08/10
  • With 40% of students using references they do not understand, can they represent other people’s work fairly? Students often confused about the idea of “contributing something of their own” or writing something original Physics citation and databases notes 12/08/10
  • Contributing something of your own includes all of the above. The scholars “voice” is the way a student synthesises the available information. This is what makes it original. Especially in the first year, students are not expected to be able to write as well as an expert. This will develop over their student career. Physics citation and databases notes 12/08/10
  • Hand out black and white cards ready to vote on the next slides (black = plagiarism/mis-citation, white = correct citation) All of the information on the following slides is on the website listed at the end of the presentation Physics citation and databases notes 12/08/10
  • Slide22: Incorrect: No reference to original author Physics citation and databases notes 12/08/10
  • Slide 21: Correct: Author referenced. Rewritten in own words Physics citation and databases notes 12/08/10
  • Slide23: Incorrect: First sentence not attributed to original author Physics citation and databases notes 12/08/10
  • Physics citation and databases notes 12/08/10
  • Physics citation and databases notes 12/08/10
  • Some lecturers conflate the two terms. Explain the difference Physics citation and databases notes 12/08/10
  • References are written in different ways for different sources. These are all explained on the website. The 3 most common are shown on the next three slides. The important thing is to be consistent Physics citation and databases notes 12/08/10
  • Physics citation and databases notes 12/08/10
  • Physics citation and databases notes 12/08/10
  • Not all of this information will be available to the student. At a bare minimum, the URL and date accessed will be enough if there is no other information available (although can the student rely upon that website’s information?) Physics citation and databases notes 12/08/10
  • Physics citation and databases notes 12/08/10
  • 12/08/10 Physics citation and databases notes
  • Most students use Google but most are not aware of Google Scholar. Optional depending on group. 12/08/10 Physics citation and databases notes
  • N.B. academics have different views on Wikipedia. Some are promoting it. Some are banning it! Our position is pragmatic – students use it so let’s help them use it intelligently. If you want a fun page try ‘Exploding whale’! 12/08/10 Physics citation and databases notes
  • 12/08/10 Physics citation and databases notes
  • Customise library info. N.B. We can’t encourage everyone to register at BL without reason! Note new prices for ILLs!
  • Transcript of "Literature Searching, Referencing & Citation and Plagiarism (2nd Year Physics)"

    1. 3. Literature Searching, Referencing & Citation and Plagiarism Jamie Halstead Information Specialist Natural & Mathematical Sciences
    2. 4. Referencing & Citation and Avoiding Plagiarism
    3. 5. Referencing & Citation and Avoiding Plagiarism <ul><li>What is citation and why do it? </li></ul><ul><li>What is plagiarism and why is it so serious? </li></ul><ul><li>How to avoid it </li></ul><ul><li>How to use other people’s work in your work </li></ul><ul><li>Writing references and bibliographies </li></ul>
    4. 6. What You Should Cite? <ul><li>Direct quotes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Part of a sentence, built into your sentences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long quotes that are introduced by your sentences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Block quotes (quotes of over 40 words) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Paraphrases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Somebody else’s idea in your words </li></ul></ul>
    5. 9. Why Cite References? <ul><li>To avoid plagiarism </li></ul><ul><li>To get credit for the research you have done </li></ul><ul><li>To substantiate what you have written </li></ul><ul><li>To enable others to follow up your research </li></ul><ul><li>To give credit to others for their work </li></ul><ul><li>To enable you to go back and check information </li></ul>
    6. 10. <ul><li>The presentation of another person’s thoughts or words as though they were your own </li></ul><ul><li>Direct quotations from published or unpublished works of others (including lecture hand-outs) without proper citation. </li></ul><ul><li>Paraphrasing – expressing another person’s ideas of judgements in other words without proper acknowledgement </li></ul>What Is Plagiarism?
    7. 11. Reasons Why Students Plagiarise <ul><li>Cynical plagiarism </li></ul><ul><li>Time pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Poor notes </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of subject knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Ignorance of citation rules </li></ul>
    8. 12. <ul><li>Plagiarism is a form of cheating and a serious academic offence </li></ul><ul><li>College Plagiarism Policy available from Onespace / Policy Zone </li></ul><ul><li>The School of Natural & Mathematical Sciences Statement on Plagiarism </li></ul>Kings College Rules On Plagiarism
    9. 13. <ul><li>Turnitin ( http://www.submit.ac.uk ) may be used to check your work </li></ul><ul><li>More information on OneSpace at </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.kcl.ac.uk/onespace/study/turnitin/ </li></ul>Turnitin
    10. 14. Avoiding The Pitfalls <ul><li>Time management </li></ul><ul><li>Note taking </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding </li></ul><ul><li>Your voice / contribution </li></ul>
    11. 15. Note Taking <ul><li>In your notes identify: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>direct quotes (“Q”) and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>paraphrases (“P”) or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>your own ideas (“Me”) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Make sure to include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>page number, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>volume/ issue, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>author and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>article/book/journal title </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Keep a working bibliography </li></ul>
    12. 16. Lack Of Understanding <ul><li>Not understanding your notes </li></ul><ul><li>Assuming that you should understand the subject and will be “found out” if you ask for help </li></ul><ul><li>Can’t find a way to express an idea better than the original author </li></ul>
    13. 17. Voice <ul><li>Can my reader tell which ideas are mine and which belong to other people? </li></ul><ul><li>Have I represented other peoples work fairly? </li></ul><ul><li>Have I contributed something of my own? </li></ul>
    14. 18. <ul><li>- Choosing a topic to research </li></ul><ul><li>- Choosing what information to read </li></ul><ul><li>- Agreeing / disagreeing with what you have read / quoted </li></ul><ul><li>- Choosing what information to include/exclude </li></ul><ul><li>- Developing your own writing style </li></ul>Your Contribution
    15. 19. Citation Guidelines <ul><li>Citation in text </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Paraphrases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quotes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reference & bibliography </li></ul><ul><li>User Guide on Onespace at http://www.kcl.ac.uk/content/1/c6/07/98/48/citing2009-10FINAL1.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>Check with your lecturer </li></ul>
    16. 20. <ul><li>“ There is little doubt that future developments in string theory will utilize many mathematical tools and concepts that do not currently exist. The need for cutting-edge mathematics is promoting a very healthy relationship between large segments of the string theory and mathematics communities. ” (Schwartz & Schwartz, 2004, p. 347). </li></ul><ul><li>In the future, string theory will use mathematical concepts which have yet to be invented. The need for new concepts is already producing co-operation between mathematicians and the string theory community. </li></ul>Paraphrasing (Incorrectly)
    17. 21. <ul><li>“ There is little doubt that future developments in string theory will utilize many mathematical tools and concepts that do not currently exist. The need for cutting-edge mathematics is promoting a very healthy relationship between large segments of the string theory and mathematics communities. ” (Schwartz & Schwartz, 2004, p. 347) </li></ul><ul><li>Schwartz & Schwartz (2004, p 347) accept that in the future, string theory will use mathematical concepts which have yet to be invented and they argue that this need for new concepts is already producing co-operation between mathematicians and the string theory community. </li></ul>Paraphrasing (Correctly)
    18. 22. <ul><li>“ There is little doubt that future developments in string theory will utilize many mathematical tools and concepts that do not currently exist. The need for cutting-edge mathematics is promoting a very healthy relationship between large segments of the string theory and mathematics communities. ” (Schwartz & Schwartz, 2004, p. 347) </li></ul><ul><li>In the future, string theory will use mathematical concepts which have yet to be invented. The need for new concepts is already producing co-operation between mathematicians and the string theory community (Schwartz & Schwartz, 2004). </li></ul>Paraphrasing (Incorrectly)
    19. 23. Quoting Tables, Diagrams & Equations <ul><li>To correctly reference equations, tables and diagrams you will need to consider the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Equations, diagrams and tables = quotations in the text </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decide which steps of an equation to include and which to leave out </li></ul></ul>
    20. 24. Citing Secondary Sources <ul><li>Reference: U. Bossel Does a Hydrogen Economy Make Sense? Proceedings of the IEEE. Vol. 94, No. 10, October 2006 </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. Equations from other people’s work </li></ul><ul><li>If you use a secondary source, make this clear in your citation </li></ul>
    21. 25. Writing a Bibliography/References <ul><li>Bibliography </li></ul><ul><ul><li>List of consulted readings, e.g. list of textbook sources, studied while composing your work, but not specifically cited in the text </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually presented in author order </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reference list </li></ul><ul><ul><li>List of cited sources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Either </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Numeric: superscript numbers 1 ,with numbered reference list </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Harvard: (author, year), with author order reference list </li></ul></ul></ul>
    22. 26. Types Of References <ul><li>Book </li></ul><ul><li>Book chapter </li></ul><ul><li>Journal article </li></ul><ul><li>E-journal article </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic book </li></ul><ul><li>Web page </li></ul><ul><li>Images </li></ul><ul><li>Illustrations and tables </li></ul><ul><li>Computer programme </li></ul><ul><li>Conference proceedings </li></ul><ul><li>Conference papers </li></ul><ul><li>Standards and patents </li></ul>
    23. 27. <ul><li>Author (surname and initials) </li></ul><ul><li>Year of publication (in brackets) </li></ul><ul><li>Title (in italics) </li></ul><ul><li>Edition (only needed if 2 nd or later edition) </li></ul><ul><li>Place of publication </li></ul><ul><li>Publisher </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. Schwarz P M, Schwarz J H. (2004). Special relativity: from Einstein to strings. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press </li></ul>Books
    24. 28. <ul><li>Author (surname and initials) </li></ul><ul><li>Year of publication (in brackets) </li></ul><ul><li>Title of article (in quotation marks) </li></ul><ul><li>Title of journal (in italics) </li></ul><ul><li>Issue details (volume, issue number) </li></ul><ul><li>Page number(s) of whole article </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. Du Sautoya M (2006). “Burden of proof”. New Scientist. Vol 191, Issue 2566: pp 41-43. </li></ul>Journal Articles
    25. 29. <ul><li>Author </li></ul><ul><li>Year that the site was last updated (in brackets) </li></ul><ul><li>Title of website (in italics) </li></ul><ul><li>Available at: URL </li></ul><ul><li>(Accessed: date (in brackets) </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. Purdue University Writing Lab (2006). Owl on-line writing lab. http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/589/01 </li></ul><ul><li>(accessed: 09/08/2008). </li></ul>Websites
    26. 30. <ul><li>Maughan Library and ISC Enquiry Desk </li></ul><ul><ul><li>020 7848 1178/243 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Jamie Halstead </li></ul><ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul></ul>Further Information
    27. 31. Finding Quality Academic Information
    28. 32. Finding Quality Academic Information <ul><li>Web sources and issues </li></ul><ul><li>Journal papers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Finding the full-text of journal references </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Using databases to search for journal articles on a subject area </li></ul></ul>
    29. 33. <ul><li>There’s so much on the web that it’s hard to find the good stuff </li></ul><ul><li>Try Google Scholar </li></ul><ul><li>Change your preferences to link to Kings e-journals </li></ul>Google
    30. 34. <ul><li>Good starting point </li></ul><ul><li>Health warning! </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t rely on it for accuracy </li></ul><ul><li>Your tutors may not accept references to it </li></ul><ul><li>Always use authoritative sources </li></ul>Wikipedia
    31. 35. <ul><li>Journals when you have a reference </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Via the library catalogue </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Journals when you only have a topic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Web of Knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SciVerse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IEEE Xplore </li></ul></ul>Finding Journal Information
    32. 36. <ul><li>V W Maslen. Crystal ionic radii. Proceedings of the Physical Society , 91(1):259–260, 1967. </li></ul><ul><li>Go to the OneSpace log-in page ( https://onespace.kcl.ac.uk/ ) </li></ul><ul><li>Click ISS catalogue </li></ul><ul><li>Search for Proceedings of the Physical Society </li></ul><ul><li>Change select search by to journal title words </li></ul><ul><li>Click submit </li></ul><ul><li>Click SFX@King’s for the full text </li></ul><ul><li>Click the link for full text </li></ul><ul><li>Search for the correct volume (91), issue (1) and pages (259-260) </li></ul><ul><li>You will need your ATHENS password if off site </li></ul>Journal Articles When You Have A Reference
    33. 37. <ul><li>F. Thompson and J. K. Gagon. Fringe capacitance of a parallel-plate capacitor. Physics Education , 17(2):80–82, 1982. </li></ul>Try to find and access this article yourself
    34. 38. <ul><li>Phrase Searching </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. “robotic fingers” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Truncation * </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. Robot* retrieves robot, robotics, robots etc </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wildcards $ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. colo$r retrieves colour and color </li></ul></ul>Search Tips
    35. 39. Some Final Reminders
    36. 40. <ul><li>Senate House and other academic libraries </li></ul><ul><li>Other libraries in London </li></ul><ul><li>Specialist libraries </li></ul><ul><li>British Library </li></ul><ul><li>Inter Library Loans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>£3.50 journal article </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>£6.50 book </li></ul></ul>External Resources
    37. 41. Summary <ul><li>Make sure you don’t plagiarise </li></ul><ul><li>Use the library e-resources to find quality information </li></ul><ul><li>Impress your tutors with your references and bibliography </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t leave it all to the last minute </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure you keep back up copies of your all work </li></ul>
    38. 42. Questions? <ul><li>Jamie Halstead </li></ul><ul><li>Information Specialist for Natural & Mathematical Sciences </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>
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