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Week 5 Primary, Secondary data and G
Week 5 Primary, Secondary data and G
Week 5 Primary, Secondary data and G
Week 5 Primary, Secondary data and G
Week 5 Primary, Secondary data and G
Week 5 Primary, Secondary data and G
Week 5 Primary, Secondary data and G
Week 5 Primary, Secondary data and G
Week 5 Primary, Secondary data and G
Week 5 Primary, Secondary data and G
Week 5 Primary, Secondary data and G
Week 5 Primary, Secondary data and G
Week 5 Primary, Secondary data and G
Week 5 Primary, Secondary data and G
Week 5 Primary, Secondary data and G
Week 5 Primary, Secondary data and G
Week 5 Primary, Secondary data and G
Week 5 Primary, Secondary data and G
Week 5 Primary, Secondary data and G
Week 5 Primary, Secondary data and G
Week 5 Primary, Secondary data and G
Week 5 Primary, Secondary data and G
Week 5 Primary, Secondary data and G
Week 5 Primary, Secondary data and G
Week 5 Primary, Secondary data and G
Week 5 Primary, Secondary data and G
Week 5 Primary, Secondary data and G
Week 5 Primary, Secondary data and G
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Week 5 Primary, Secondary data and G

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  • The nature side of the debate suggests behaviour is cause by characteristics we are born with- the innate characterisitcs, which are usually physiological or biological. People behave the way they do because they are animals who act in accordance with their animal instincts (innate characteristics) and are determined by their biology.These characteristics are inherited from our ancestors, and form our genetic makeup
  • On the other hand, the nature side of the debate suggests that people behave the way they do because they are determined by the things other people teach them, the things they observe, and because of the different situations they are in.Like the nature side, the nurture side is also a determinist view as it proposes all human behaviour is the result of interactions with the environment.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Crossword time …
    • 2. www.jamiesflipped.co.uk @jamiesflipped
    • 3. Learning Objectives By the end of this lesson you: • Must be able to apply (AO2) your knowledge of schizophrenia and treatments to a new situation. • Must be able to describe (Ao1) and evaluate (Ao2) primary and secondary data in research. Pg. 21-25/ Pg 7/8
    • 4. APPLICATION TASK – applied learning scenario Read the case of Jack and using your knowledge of schizophrenia, the biological and social explanations, and the biological and social treatments answer the questions. If you complete the application task: Evaluate the effectiveness of the treatments that Jack has been given and suggest an alternative (cognitive).
    • 5. 1. Identify the symptoms that Jack is presenting that would suggest that his diagnosis of schizophrenia is correct. Categorise these as positive, negative or cognitive. 2. Identify what biological factors may have caused Jack’s initial schizoid behaviour. 3. Identify the social factors that could have caused Jack’s initial schizoid behaviour. 4. Identify the biological intervention to help Jack and describe why the Phenothiazines may be effective in treating schizophrenia. 5. Identify the social intervention(s) that have been put into place to support Jack and describe why these may be effective in treating his schizophrenia.
    • 6. Primary & Secondary Data • Primary data are data collected by the researcher from source. Most methods used in psychology do collect primary data through such methods as questionnaires and experiments. • Secondary data have already been collected by other researchers and then used by psychologists. Secondary data often come as statistics and a method called meta analysis is often used by psychologists. Meta analysis involves the pooling of data about a particular topic from difference sources such as the occurrence of depression. Page 7-8
    • 7. 1. In your own words, define what is meant by primary data. 2. Explain why research which is carried out first-hand gains credibility. 3. What is meant by ‘empirical’ research? 4. Give two examples of research methods used in psychology which produce primary data. 5. Is primary data qualitative or quantitative? 6. Give one example of psychological research that produced primary data and explain why it was primary data. 7. In your own words, define what is meant by secondary data. 8. Give one reason why a psychologist may choose to use secondary data. 9. When does primary data become secondary data? 10. Give two examples of research methods used in psychology which use secondary data. 11. Provide one example of psychological research that used secondary data and explain why it is secondary data. 12. Which is most reliable: primary or secondary data? Explain why. 13. Which type of data is considered to be less time consuming and costly? 14. Which type of data is likely to be considered more up –to-date? 15. Outline one difference between primary and secondary data.
    • 8. • Must be able to apply (AO2) your knowledge of schizophrenia and treatments to a new situation. • Must be able to describe (Ao1) and evaluate (Ao2) primary and secondary data in research.
    • 9. True of False
    • 10. Learning Objectives By the end of this lesson you: • Must be able to describe (AO1) the use of twin studies in psychology . • Must be able to describe (AO1) Gottesman and Shields’ study • Might be able to evaluate (AO2) Gottesman and Shields’ study. Pg. 47/48
    • 11. Nature Behaviour is caused by innate characteristics : • The physiological/biological characteristics we are born with. • Behaviour is therefore determined by biology. • Determinist view - suggests all behaviour is determined by hereditary factors: Inherited characteristics, or genetic make-up we are born with.
    • 12. Nurture • An individuals behaviour is determined by the environment- the things people teach them, the things they observe, and because of the different situations they are in. • Also a determinist view - proposes all human behaviour is the result of interactions with the environment.
    • 13. Do twins hold the answer?
    • 14. Genes Shared MZ Twins 100% DZ Twins 50% (approx) Siblings 50% (approx) Adopted Children None
    • 15. Concordance Feature Interpretation MZ concordance is significantly higher than DZ concordance The disorder has a genetic component. MZ concordance is same or similar to DZ concordance The disorder is environmentally caused. MZ concordance is 100% The disorder is genetically caused. MZ concordance is significantly less than 100% The disorder has an environmental component.
    • 16. A • Aim • What did they hope to find? What was their research question? What theory is the study attempting to support? How is it going to support it? P • Procedure • What did they do? How did they do it? Who did they do it to? When did they do it? R • Results • What did they find out? What data did they collect? C • Conclusion • What does this mean? Did the results support the aim? Do the results support the theory the study is based on? Page 47-48
    • 17. Aim(s) To investigate the relative importance of genetic and environmental influences on schizophrenia by comparing MZ and DZ twins. • 1.Wanted to know the extent to which Schizophrenia was genetic • 2.Wanted to replicate other studies that had found a genetic link with schizophrenia
    • 18. Procedure Collected secondary data from hospital records of twins from the Maudsley and Bethlem Royal Joint Hospital as well as collecting primary data by interviewing and giving personality (psychometric) tests. From a sample of 392 patients 57 twin pairs were selected aged between 19 –64yrs (average age 37) where at least one of the twins were on the register of the hospital as suffering from schizophrenia (5 pairs were both on the register).
    • 19. Participants MZ DZ (same sex) Total Male 13 17 30 Female 11 16 27 Total 24 33 57 The following information was obtained: • Case histories based on a self-report questionnaire and interview with the twins and their parents to provide a record of verbal behaviour • A personality test • A test used to measure disordered thinking conducted on twins and parents.
    • 20. Results Analysis of the data has looked for similarities between each patient and their twin. Concordance was assessed in three different ways: • Grade 1: both the patient and co-twin had been hospitalised and diagnosed with schizophrenia. • Grade 2: both patient and co-twin have had psychiatric hospitalisation but the co- twin has a different diagnosis. Grade MZ (%) DZ (%) 1 42 9 2 12 9 3 25 27 Normal 21 55 • Grade 3: The co-twin has some psychiatric abnormality (e.g. out-patient care, GP care, neurotic or psychotic personality profile or being abnormal on interview)
    • 21. Conclusions NATURE • Genes appear to play an important role in schizophrenia because the concordance rate is higher in MZ twins than DZ twins. (MZ twins are at least 48 times more likely to have schizophrenia than someone in the general population) • There is some evidence to suggest that there is a set of genes responsible but not one in particular. NURTURE • Environmental factors must also be important. The Diathesis- stress model suggests that individuals have a genetic predisposition for schizophrenia which is in part triggered from the environment. • Gottesman (1991) went on to investigate the influence of genes on by combining the results of 40 investigations spanning over 60 years. Concordance rate for schizophrenia was 48% for MZ and 17% for DZ twins.
    • 22. 1. Describe one research method used in the study of schizophrenia (6) 2. Evaluate one research method used in the study of schizophrenia (6) 3. Evaluate one study as an example of this research method (6) 4. Twin sisters Zara and Elizabeth shared everything as they were growing up, dolls, secrets, boyfriends. Recently, Zara has been diagnosed with schizophrenia and now Elizabeth is terrified that she’ll be next. Use psychological concepts, theory and studies to discuss whether Elizabeth is right to be worried.(8) Tip: your answer must include an evidence based argument that Elizabeth should be worried but also a counter-argument, presenting reasons why Elizabeth may be okay, thoughts about how Elizabeth could protect herself further, evidence which refuters the role of genetics in schizophrenia, possibly drawing upon theories which suggest schizophrenia is caused by environmental experiences, limitations of studies which support the genetic base of schizophrenia
    • 23. • Must be able to apply (AO2) your knowledge of schizophrenia and treatments to a new situation. • Must be able to describe (Ao1) and evaluate (Ao2) primary and secondary data in research.
    • 24. www.jamiesflipped.co.uk @jamiesflipped

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