Week 11 A2 Biology and Depression

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Week 11 A2 Biology and Depression

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Week 11 A2 Biology and Depression

  1. 1. Biological Explanation • Complete the worksheet revising the biological approach.
  2. 2. www.jamiesflipped.co.uk @jamiesflipped
  3. 3. Lesson Objectives By the end of the lesson you … • Must be able to define (AO1) the central nervous system, synapse, neurones and neurotransmitters. • Must be able to describe (AO1) how the synapse, receptors, neurons and neurotransmitters pass ‘messages’ • Should be able to describe (AO1) and evaluate (AO2) the biological approach to understanding depression.
  4. 4. Pinky and The Brain … 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. How many brain cells does an average brain contain? What percentage of the bodies energy does the brain use? How much does a brain weigh? What percentage of our brain do we use? How many times do our brain cells fire a second? How many times do synapses send information every second?
  5. 5. ? ? ? Biological Approach
  6. 6. How chemical activity mediates out behaviour. Genetic Influences over our behaviour Biological Approach Hormonal Influences over our behaviour
  7. 7. How chemical activity mediates out behaviour. Neurotransmitters • One way messages are passed within the brain is by neurotransmitters. • These are chemicals that pass from neuron to neuron. • Between neurones there are gaps called synapses. • If the receptors of one neuron are set to receive the neurotransmitters of another, then the message continues.
  8. 8. Genetic Influences over our behaviour Genetic Influences • Genes are passed on from parents to children and they govern behaviour as well as physical characteristics. Children receive (approx.) half their genes from their fathers and half from their mothers. • The human genome has recently been decoded, which means that all genes have been identified. • Does not mean the function of each gene is known because it is often the combination or the position of genes that leads to certain characteristics, rather than one particular gene.
  9. 9. Hormonal Influences over our behaviour Hormonal Transmission • Hormones are another way messages are passed around the body. • These send messages more slowly than neurotransmitters and are used for different purposes. • Hormones have a large part to play in our development as either male or female – for example, ANDROGENS are ‘male’ and OESTROGEN is ‘female’.
  10. 10. The Neurone
  11. 11. The Synapse
  12. 12. 1 Vesicles release neurotransmitter into synaptic cleft
  13. 13. 2 Neurotransmitter binds to receptors & activates them
  14. 14. 3 Excess neurotransmitter is taken up by the pre-synaptic neurone
  15. 15. 4 Enzymes are released to break down the remaining neurotransmitter
  16. 16. 5 Vesicles are replenished with new & reused neurotransmitter
  17. 17. Prozac Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor
  18. 18. Illustration 1 shows how this works in a healthy nerve transmission process
  19. 19. Illustration 2 shows the process when Major Depression is present. Note that fewer Serotonin molecules are present in the synaptic cleft and hence fewer make it to the next neuron to make it "fire."
  20. 20. Illustration 3 shows how an SSRI drug blocks the reuptake of Serotonin thus causing the concentration in the synaptic cleft to be increased. Consequently more serotonin makes it to the receptor sites on the next nerve cell and the functioning returns to normal.
  21. 21. Describe how neurotransmitters work differently in a person with depression. Include an explanation of synaptic transmission in your answer and give a reason for the difference.
  22. 22. • Must be able to define (AO1) the central nervous system, synapse, neurones and neurotransmitters. • Must be able to describe (AO1) how the synapse, receptors, neurons and neurotransmitters pass ‘messages’ • Should be able to describe (AO1) and evaluate (AO2) the biological approach to understanding depression.
  23. 23. Emailing a friend … Imagine your are emailing a friend who has depression and who does not know much about psychology and describing to them how the biological approach would explain their depression.
  24. 24. Lesson Objectives By the end of the lesson you … • Must be able to compare (AO2) the biological and cognitive explanations of depression. • Should be able to mark a 12 mark question and give feedback on it.
  25. 25. There are many explanations for depression including biological ones. Describe one explanation for depression and compare this with one other explanation. Comparisons include considering similarities and/or differences. [12] *in the exam they cannot specifically name depression.
  26. 26. • Must be able to compare (AO2) the biological and cognitive explanations of depression. • Should be able to mark a 12 mark question and give feedback on it.
  27. 27. www.jamiesflipped.co.uk @jamiesflipped

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