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Psych Investigations Revision PowerPoint
Psych Investigations Revision PowerPoint
Psych Investigations Revision PowerPoint
Psych Investigations Revision PowerPoint
Psych Investigations Revision PowerPoint
Psych Investigations Revision PowerPoint
Psych Investigations Revision PowerPoint
Psych Investigations Revision PowerPoint
Psych Investigations Revision PowerPoint
Psych Investigations Revision PowerPoint
Psych Investigations Revision PowerPoint
Psych Investigations Revision PowerPoint
Psych Investigations Revision PowerPoint
Psych Investigations Revision PowerPoint
Psych Investigations Revision PowerPoint
Psych Investigations Revision PowerPoint
Psych Investigations Revision PowerPoint
Psych Investigations Revision PowerPoint
Psych Investigations Revision PowerPoint
Psych Investigations Revision PowerPoint
Psych Investigations Revision PowerPoint
Psych Investigations Revision PowerPoint
Psych Investigations Revision PowerPoint
Psych Investigations Revision PowerPoint
Psych Investigations Revision PowerPoint
Psych Investigations Revision PowerPoint
Psych Investigations Revision PowerPoint
Psych Investigations Revision PowerPoint
Psych Investigations Revision PowerPoint
Psych Investigations Revision PowerPoint
Psych Investigations Revision PowerPoint
Psych Investigations Revision PowerPoint
Psych Investigations Revision PowerPoint
Psych Investigations Revision PowerPoint
Psych Investigations Revision PowerPoint
Psych Investigations Revision PowerPoint
Psych Investigations Revision PowerPoint
Psych Investigations Revision PowerPoint
Psych Investigations Revision PowerPoint
Psych Investigations Revision PowerPoint
Psych Investigations Revision PowerPoint
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Psych Investigations Revision PowerPoint

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  • 1. Psychological Investigations G541 Revision www.holah.co.uk/page/ investigations www.psychblog.co.uk/powerpoints
  • 2. The Exam! <ul><li>The exam is 1 hour long and you will have to answer three questions. </li></ul><ul><li>This unit is 30% of your total AS psychology - paper marked out of 60. </li></ul><ul><li>Although you will have to learn four sections for this paper, you will only be asked questions on three of the sections. </li></ul>Experiments Correlations Observations Self-Reports <ul><li>You will be asked questions about: </li></ul><ul><li>the piece of research including strengths and weaknesses. </li></ul><ul><li>the data produced by the research. </li></ul><ul><li>to design your own research </li></ul><ul><li>the strengths and weaknesses of this proposed research. </li></ul>
  • 3. EXPERIMENTS <ul><li>Psychological Investigations </li></ul>
  • 4. Experiments <ul><li>Three types of experiments: </li></ul><ul><li>Laboratory experiments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Highly controlled / artificial </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Field experiments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Controlled variables in a natural environment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Quasi (natural) experiments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We have no control over the independent variable – it’s ‘naturally’ occurring (eg Gender) </li></ul></ul>
  • 5. Experiments Independent Variable (IV) Dependent Variable (DV) Confounding Variable : a variable that effects the DV Extraneous Variable : a variable that could affect the DV but has been controlled for so it doesn’t.
  • 6. Experiments <ul><li>Extraneous Variables </li></ul><ul><li>Participant Variables </li></ul><ul><li>Independent Measures = Individual Differences </li></ul><ul><li>Situational Variables </li></ul><ul><li>Any feature of the experiment that could influence a participants behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Single Blind – Double Blind – Control Groups </li></ul>
  • 7. Experiments <ul><li>Independent Measures </li></ul><ul><li>Participants are only in one condition. </li></ul><ul><li>Repeated Measures </li></ul><ul><li>The same participants repeat the two conditions </li></ul>Condition 1 Condition 2 Condition 1 Condition 2 Counter balancing – alter order of Pp’s
  • 8. Experiments <ul><li>Matched Pairs – make two groups of participants as similar as possible. </li></ul>Condition 1 Condition 2 Male (Bob) 21 IQ = 105 Male (Richard) 21 IQ = 105 Female (Dawn) 25 IQ = 115 Female (Cara) 25 IQ = 115
  • 9. Evaluation of Experimental Designs Strength Weakness Independent Measures No Order Effects Fewer Demand Characteristics Individual Differences Repeated Measures No Individual Differences Order Effects (counter balancing) Matched Pairs Controls for Individual Differences Can be difficult and costly.
  • 10. Experimental Methods ± Independent & Dependent Variables Confounding & Extraneous Variables Cause & Effect Types of Experiments Laboratory Field Quasi (natural) Independent Measures Repeated Measures Matched-Pairs Sampling Methods Opportunity Random Snowball Stratified Self-Selected Ethics Ecological Validity Reliability Validity
  • 11. Experiments – Hypotheses Participants memory will be much worse when there is a distraction in the room than when there is no distraction. Participants memory will be much worse when there is a distraction in the room than when there is no distraction. How are we measuring memory? What’s better or worse? Higher / Lower? More / Less? What is the distraction? How are we manipulating it? Operationalising your hypothesis How have you manipulated your IV? How have you measured your DV?
  • 12. Experiments – Hypotheses Participants memory will be much worse when there is a distraction in the room than when there is no distraction. Participants will remember significantly more words from a list of 20 presented for 60 seconds when they are in a room with no distractions than participants who are in a room where rock music is playing in the background.
  • 13. Experiments – Hypotheses Participants who [ do something ] will be significantly [ faster/better/quicker etc ] at [ something ] than participants who [ do something else ]. There will be no significant difference between participants who [ do something ] and those who [ do something else ]. Any difference will be down to chance. Alternative Null
  • 14. Experiments – Hypotheses Participants who [ do something ] will be significantly [ faster/better/quicker etc ] at [ something ] than participants who [ do something else ]. There will be a significant difference between participants who [ do something ] and those who [ do something else ]. 1Tailed 2Tailed
  • 15. Key Terms - Experiments <ul><li>Laboratory Experiment </li></ul><ul><li>Field Experiment </li></ul><ul><li>Quasi Experiment </li></ul><ul><li>Independent Variable </li></ul><ul><li>Dependent Variable </li></ul><ul><li>Confounding Variable </li></ul><ul><li>Extraneous Variable </li></ul><ul><li>Replication </li></ul><ul><li>Cause and Effect </li></ul><ul><li>Ecological Validity </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative Hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>Demand Characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Ethics </li></ul><ul><li>Independent Measures </li></ul><ul><li>Repeated Measures </li></ul><ul><li>Matched-Pairs </li></ul><ul><li>Individual Differences </li></ul><ul><li>Order Effects </li></ul><ul><li>Counter Balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Operationalising Hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>Null Hypothesis </li></ul>
  • 16. CORRELATIONS <ul><li>Psychological Investigations </li></ul>
  • 17. Correlation <ul><li>Positive Correlation </li></ul><ul><li>Negative Correlation </li></ul><ul><li>Zero Correlation </li></ul><ul><li>Can’t infer causation – only relationships! </li></ul><ul><li>Correlation Coefficients </li></ul><ul><li>+1.0 Perfect Positive </li></ul><ul><li>+0.8 Strong </li></ul><ul><li>+0.2 Weak </li></ul><ul><li>0 Zero </li></ul><ul><li>-0.2 Weak </li></ul><ul><li>-0.8 Strong </li></ul><ul><li>-1.0 Perfect Negative </li></ul>
  • 18. Correlation – Hypotheses There will be a significant [ direction ] correlation between [ variable 1 ] (measured by [ something ]) and [ variable 2 ] (measured by [ something ]) There will be no significant correlation between [ variable 1 ] (measured by [ something ]) and [ variable 2 ] (measured by [ something ]) Alternative. Null
  • 19. Correlation – Hypotheses There will be a significant [ direction ] correlation between [ variable 1 ] (measured by [ something ]) and [ variable 2 ] (measured by [ something ]) There will be a significant correlation between [ variable 1 ] (measured by [ something ]) and [ variable 2 ] (measured by [ something ]) 1Tailed 2Tailed No Direction
  • 20. Data Analysis <ul><li>Descriptive Statistics </li></ul><ul><li>Summary of data to illustrate patterns and relationships – BUT can’t infer conclusions </li></ul><ul><li>Inferential Statistics </li></ul><ul><li>Statistical tests that allow us to make conclusions in relation to our hypothesis. </li></ul><ul><li>eg. Mann-Whitney or Spearman’s Rho. </li></ul>
  • 21. Data Analysis Scattergram to show the Correlation between variable 1 and variable 2 Titles are VERY important. Title your axis, the integers and give the graph a title.
  • 22. Data Analysis <ul><li>Descriptive Statistics </li></ul><ul><li>Summary of data to illustrate patterns and relationships – BUT can’t infer conclusions </li></ul><ul><li>Inferential Statistics </li></ul><ul><li>Statistical tests that allow us to make conclusions in relation to our hypothesis. </li></ul><ul><li>eg. Mann-Whitney or Spearman’s Rho. </li></ul>
  • 23. Data Analysis <ul><li>Nominal - measure of central tendency: mode </li></ul><ul><li>Data in categories (finished, fell, started) </li></ul><ul><li>Ordinal - measure of central tendency: median </li></ul><ul><li>Data which are ranked or in order (1 st 2 nd 3 rd ) </li></ul><ul><li>Interval - measure of central tendency: mean </li></ul><ul><li>Precise and measured using units of equal intervals (1m54s, 1m59s, 2m03s) </li></ul><ul><li>Measure of dispersion = range (Highest – Lowest) </li></ul>
  • 24. Key Terms - Correlation <ul><li>Positive Correlation </li></ul><ul><li>Negative Correlation </li></ul><ul><li>Zero Correlation </li></ul><ul><li>Causation </li></ul><ul><li>Correlation Coefficient </li></ul><ul><li>Operationalise Variables </li></ul><ul><li>Hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>One-tailed Hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>Two-tailed Hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>Alternate Hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>Null Hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>Descriptive Statistics </li></ul><ul><li>Inferential Statistics </li></ul><ul><li>Scattergram </li></ul><ul><li>Cause-and-effect </li></ul>
  • 25. SELF-REPORTS <ul><li>Psychological Investigations </li></ul>
  • 26. Self-Report <ul><li>Data Types </li></ul><ul><li>Quantitative Data </li></ul><ul><li>Number data: easy to analyse – no meaning </li></ul><ul><li>Qualitative Data </li></ul><ul><li>Describing meaning: difficult to analyse </li></ul><ul><li>More valid – no interpretation needed </li></ul>
  • 27. Self-Report <ul><li>Questionnaires </li></ul><ul><li>Open Questions = Qualitative Data </li></ul><ul><li>Closed Questions = Quantitative Data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fixed Choice (yes / no) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rating Scales (Likert-type Scales) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Social Desirability & fibbing </li></ul><ul><li>Response rates & leading </li></ul><ul><li>questions </li></ul>Types of SR Hand Out Face-to-face Phone Email / Internet Postal
  • 28. Self-Report <ul><li>Interviews </li></ul><ul><li>Structured / Unstructured Interviews </li></ul><ul><li>Demand Characteristics / Social Desirability </li></ul><ul><li>Reliability – how consistent are the findings </li></ul><ul><li>Validity – does the question measure what is claims to measure? </li></ul>Questionnaires: Split-Half Method Interviews: Replicate them Ask OPEN questions – more valid Conduct an observation of behaviour
  • 29. ± Self Reports Interviews Structured Unstructured Data-Types Quantitative Qualitative Types of SR’s Postal / Mail Email / Web Handout Telephone Face-to-Face Sampling Opportunity Self-Selected Random Stratified Snowball Reliability & Validity Social Desirability Question Types Open / Closed Fixed Choice / Likert
  • 30. Sampling General Population Sample Representative Sample Generalisations Sampling Techniques
  • 31. Sampling <ul><li>Opportunity Sample </li></ul><ul><li>People who are there at the time. </li></ul><ul><li>Quick / Cheap / Easy </li></ul><ul><li>Not representative </li></ul><ul><li>Random Sample </li></ul><ul><li>Each person in the GP has an equal chance of being chosen. </li></ul><ul><li>Expensive and time consuming. </li></ul><ul><li>Representative sample </li></ul>
  • 32. Sampling <ul><li>Self-Selected </li></ul><ul><li>Participants volunteer to be in the sample following advert etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Quick / Cheap / Easy </li></ul><ul><li>Not representative </li></ul><ul><li>What kind of person volunteers for a psychology experiment? </li></ul><ul><li>Snowball Sampling </li></ul><ul><li>One person tells others who tell others … </li></ul><ul><li>Allows us to collect difficult to locate people </li></ul><ul><li>Time consuming </li></ul>
  • 33. Key Terms - Self-Report <ul><li>Questionnaires </li></ul><ul><li>Interviews </li></ul><ul><li>Open Questions </li></ul><ul><li>Closed Questions </li></ul><ul><li>Social Desirability </li></ul><ul><li>Response Rate </li></ul><ul><li>Leading Questions </li></ul><ul><li>Unstructured Interviews </li></ul><ul><li>Quantitative Data </li></ul><ul><li>Qualitative Data </li></ul><ul><li>Likert Scales </li></ul><ul><li>Fixed Choice </li></ul><ul><li>Reliability </li></ul><ul><li>Validity </li></ul><ul><li>Split-half method </li></ul><ul><li>Sampling </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunity Sample </li></ul><ul><li>Random Sample </li></ul><ul><li>Self-selected Sample </li></ul><ul><li>Stratified Sample </li></ul><ul><li>Snowball Sample </li></ul>
  • 34. OBSERVATIONS <ul><li>Psychological Investigations </li></ul>
  • 35. Observation <ul><li>Participant Observations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Take part in what you’re observing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Non-Participant Observations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Just observe – no interaction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disclosed (overt) Observations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Participants aware of observer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Undisclosed (covert) Observations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Participants unaware of observer </li></ul></ul>Ethics ! Observer effect Act differently Objectivity?
  • 36. Observation <ul><li>Structured Observation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coding scheme is used to record behaviour </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quantitative data collected </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Unstructured Observation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Researchers just record what’s going on </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Qualitative data collected (usually) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Controlled Observations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Researchers manipulate some variables </li></ul></ul>Event Sampling Time Sampling
  • 37. Observation - Sampling <ul><li>Event Sampling </li></ul><ul><li>Coding Scheme </li></ul><ul><li>Researcher records an event every time it happens. </li></ul><ul><li>If too many things happen at once it may be difficult to record everything. </li></ul><ul><li>Time Sampling </li></ul><ul><li>Researcher decides on a time and then records what is occurring at that time </li></ul><ul><li>Some behaviours will be missed therefore the observation may not be representative. </li></ul>
  • 38. Observation <ul><li>Reliability </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult to replicate observation – confounding variables. </li></ul><ul><li>Check consistency within observations with inter-rater reliability (≥ 0.8) </li></ul><ul><li>Improve reliability by using good coding scheme </li></ul><ul><li>Validity </li></ul><ul><li>If participants know = low validity </li></ul><ul><li>Observer bias = low validity </li></ul><ul><li>Improve by using wider categories or single-blind technique </li></ul><ul><li>Check validity by asking participants – self-report </li></ul>
  • 39. Ethics <ul><li>Consent </li></ul><ul><li>Withdrawal </li></ul><ul><li>Debriefing </li></ul><ul><li>Deception </li></ul><ul><li>Confidentiality </li></ul><ul><li>Observation </li></ul><ul><li>Protection </li></ul><ul><li>Advice </li></ul><ul><li>Colleagues </li></ul>
  • 40. Key Terms - Observation <ul><li>Ecological Validity </li></ul><ul><li>Non-participant Obs. </li></ul><ul><li>Participant Obs. </li></ul><ul><li>Undisclosed (covert) </li></ul><ul><li>Disclosed (overt) </li></ul><ul><li>Structured </li></ul><ul><li>Unstructured </li></ul><ul><li>Coding Scheme </li></ul><ul><li>Controlled Observation </li></ul><ul><li>Event Sampling </li></ul><ul><li>Time Sampling </li></ul><ul><li>Reliability </li></ul><ul><li>Inter-rater Reliability </li></ul><ul><li>Validity </li></ul><ul><li>Categories </li></ul><ul><li>Ethics </li></ul><ul><li>Quantitative Data </li></ul><ul><li>Qualitative Data </li></ul>
  • 41. WWW.PSYCHBLOG.CO.UK/POWERPOINTS <ul><li>© 2008 Jamie Davies </li></ul>Shared under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial-Share Alike 2.0 Licence. www.creativecommons.org

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