Trainer\'s Guide


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Here\'s a Trainer\'s Guide that I have created for Successful Training

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Trainer\'s Guide

  1. 1. Trainer’s Guide to Successful Training In this module, you will know more about the following:  Trainer’s Checklist 101  What is “Constructivist Approach” In Learning?  Socratic Questioning  DGCP Method in Learning and Coaching  Root Cause Analysis – Skill VS. Will Trainer’s Checklist 101: In Training, there’s more to just being in the “room”. There are items that need to be done prior to the training itself. Below are some of the items you might want to use as a guide before training a class:  Coordinate with HR or Recruiting as to how many participants you will have.  Print name tents once you get the roster from HR or Recruiting.  Based on the headcount, prepare the training materials that you need. o Modules, Hand outs. o Dry Erase Markers o White Board eraser o Flip Charts o Flip Chart markers  Test all the PCs, systems you and your participants are going to use. Make sure they are all working.  Request for logins ahead of time.  Everyday, have your agenda ready on the board. Adults want to know what’s in store for the day!  Don’t overwhelm your participant’s on Day 1. Let Day 1 be warm, welcoming and FUN!  Everyday, thank your participants for coming in.  Check your participant’s attendance “ON TIME, ALL THE TIME”.  After each class, make sure your training room is clean and ready for the next class.  Submit all the reports needed for the day. Training & Learning
  2. 2. Trainer’s Guide to Successful Training What is the "Constructivist Approach" in Learning? Constructivism is a theory, used to explain how people know what they know. The basic idea is that problem solving is at the heart of learning, thinking, and development. As people solve problems and discover the consequences of their actions - through reflecting on past and immediate experiences - they construct their own understanding. Learning is thus an active process that requires a change in the learner. This is achieved through the activities the learner engages in, including the consequences of those activities, and through reflection. People only deeply understand what they have constructed. How do we do it the Constructivist way? - Through Socratic Questioning! What is Socratic Questioning? Named for the early Greek philosopher/teacher Socrates, a Socratic approach to teaching is one in which the instructor poses thoughtful questions to help students learn. Why Use Socratic Questioning? Socratic questioning helps students to think critically by focusing explicitly on the process of thinking. During disciplined, carefully structured questioning, participants must slow down and examine their own thinking processes (i.e., reflective thinking). Thoughtful, disciplined questioning in the classroom can achieve the following teaching and learning goals: • Model scientific practices of inquiry • Support active, student-centered learning • Facilitate inquiry-based learning • Help students to construct knowledge • Help students to develop problem-solving skills • Improve long-term retention of knowledge Training & Learning
  3. 3. Trainer’s Guide to Successful Training How to Use the Socratic Method in the Classroom: Role of the Trainer During Socratic questioning, the trainer is a model of critical thinking who respects participants' viewpoints, probes their understanding, and shows genuine interest in their thinking. The trainer poses questions that are more meaningful than those a novice of a given topic might develop on his or her own. The teacher creates and sustains an intellectually stimulating classroom environment and acknowledges the value of the participant in that environment. In an intellectually open, safe, and demanding learning environment, participants will be challenged, yet comfortable in answering questions honestly and fully in front of their peers. Tips for the Trainer • Plan significant questions that provide structure and direction to the lesson. • Phrase the questions clearly and specifically. • Wait Time: Maintain silence and wait at least 5 to 10 seconds for students to respond. • Keep the discussion focused. • Follow up on students' responses and invite elaboration. • Stimulate the discussion with probing questions. • Periodically summarize (e.g., on blackboard or overhead projector) what has been discussed. • Draw as many participants as possible into the discussion. • Do not pose yes/no questions, as they do little to promote thinking or encourage discussion. • Do not pose questions that are vague, ambiguous, or beyond the level of the students. Role of the Participants Before an exercise in thoughtful questioning, it is helpful if the trainer tells participants that they are expected to do the following: • Participate when called upon. • Answer questions as carefully and clearly as possible. • Address the whole class so that everyone can hear their answers. • Be as concise as possible in the interest of maximizing classroom time and effectiveness. Training & Learning
  4. 4. Trainer’s Guide to Successful Training DGCP Method in Learning and Coaching DGCP is a great method to use when transferring skills. DGCP stands for Demonstrate, Guide, Coach and Practice. In Training, DGCP is ideal when teaching your participants on how to use new systems, applications and when teaching them skills such as sales skills, customer service skills, etc. Here’s how you execute the process: DEMONSTRATE:  When teaching an application or system, tell the class what the system is about or when they will use it.  Have the participants switch their monitors off so they can pay closer attention.  Show the system to the class through the projector. The Skill / Will Matrix The matrix can be used to assess your employee's skill and willingness to do a specific task. Based on that assessment, you can choose how to best manage the employee towards success. An employee is rarely in one quadrant all the time. An employee will fall into one quadrant or another depending on the task and their • Skill: Experience with the task, training, knowledge, and natural talents. • Will: Desire or achieve, incentives to do task, security surrounding job, confidence in abilities, and feelings about task ("attitude") Guide Delegate • Be clear regarding expected outcomes • Be clear regarding expected outcomes Training & Learning
  5. 5. Trainer’s Guide to Successful Training (goals) and limitations of time, budget, (goals) and limitations of time, budget, etc. etc. • Discuss and set methods. • Involve in decision-making • Check for understanding • Frequently ask employee for opinions • Identify and provide required training. • Check for understanding • Accept early mistakes as important • Give responsibility and authority because "coaching" moments. employee is competent and committed. • Give responsibility and authority for the • Provide feedback. pieces of tasks employee can do. • Ask for check-ins at key milestones or • Structure tasks to minimize possible risks when employee has questions. to employee and company • Provide frequent feedback. • Praise and reward for success • Require frequent check-ins (verbal or written) early in the project, but relax control as progress is shown • Praise and reward for success Direct Excite • Discuss what would motivate employee. • Discuss why task is important and why Agree on what is possible. employee is best choice. • Be clear regarding expected outcomes • Discuss what would motivate employee. (goals) and limitations of time, budget, Agree on what is possible. etc. • Be clear regarding expected outcomes • Set clear rules, methods, and (goals) and limitations of time, budget, deadlines etc. • Check for understanding • Check for understanding • Give responsibility and authority for the • Give responsibility and authority because pieces of tasks employee can do. employee is competent • Structure tasks for quick wins • Provide frequent feedback. • Identify and provide required training. • Require frequent check-ins (verbal or • Provide frequent feedback. written) • Require frequent check-ins (verbal or written) early in the project, but relax • Praise and reward for success control as progress is shown. • Praise and reward for success Training & Learning
  6. 6. Trainer’s Guide to Successful Training SAVI Model SAVI MODEL - soma [hands-on]; aural [listening & speaking]; visual [seeing]; intellectual Soma - physical; learning by moving, Aural - learn by sounds, dialogue, reading aloud, touching, and doing; tactile, kinesthetic, hands- telling someone what they just experienced; on learning - getting physical and using & remembering jingles & rhymes; listening to audio moving your body while you learn; build, cassettes; repeating sounds in their heads; talking physically manipulate, create pictogram & out loud while solving problems; manipulating peripherals; act out a process; have an models, gathering information, making action experience; complete a physical project; plans, create personal meaning for self; read out simulation or game; take a field trip; write, loud from manuals & computer screens; read & draw, talk about an experience; interview; paraphrase; tape reading; create own tape for key create an active exercise for whole class. words, processes, definitions, procedures; tell stories with learning embedded in them; paired discussion, telling, review; create a rhyme, rap, auditory mnemonic; practice while describing aloud what you are doing; talk nonstop during creative problem-salving or long-term planning. Visual - more equipment in everyone’s head Intellectual - intellect is the sense-maker of the for processing visual info than for any other mind; the means by which we “think,” integrate sense; using visual imagery in learning results new experiences, create new neural networks, & in 12% better on immediate recall & 26% better learn; intellect connects the body’s mental, on long-term retention; helps all to see what physical, emotional, and intuitive experiences to presenter is talking about; see real-world build fresh meaning for itself; intellect is the examples, diagrams, idea maps, icons, means by which the mind turns experience into pictures, images while learning; learn by knowledge, knowledge into understanding, and creating idea maps; create pictogram, icons, 3- understanding [we hope] into wisdom! Need D table-top displays; solve real-world situation - sufficient intellectual challenge for the exercises to then think & talk about it, drawing out be meaningful to the learners. solving problems, processes, principles, & meanings that it analyzing experience, doing strategic planning, illustrates; picturesque language: metaphors & generating creative ideas, accessing & distilling analogies; images; vivid presentation graphics; info; formulating questions, creating mental 3-D objects; dramatic body language; vivid models, applying new ideas to the job, creating stories; pictogram creation; icon job aids; field personal meaning, thinking through the observations; colorful decorations; room implications of an idea; use all four SAVI elements peripherals; mental imagery exercises. in a single learning event: watch, do, talk, think about applying such to the job; enhance problem- solving skills by simultaneously manipulating something to produce pictogram or 3-D display while talking aloud re what is being done. Training & Learning
  7. 7. Trainer’s Guide to Successful Training The ADDIE Model The ADDIE model is the generic process traditionally used by instructional designers and training developers. The five phases—Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation— represent a dynamic, flexible guideline for building effective training and performance support tools. It is an Instructional Systems Design (ISD) model. Most of the current instructional design models are spin-offs or variations of the ADDIE model; other models include the Dick & Carey and Kemp ISD models. One commonly accepted improvement to this model is the use of rapid prototyping. This is the idea of receiving continual or formative feedback while instructional materials are being created. This model attempts to save time and money by catching problems while they are still easy to fix. For example, the ADDIE model was used in the framework for helping create new research topics in learning technology (Liu, 2008). Instructional theories also play an important role in the design of instructional materials. Theories such as behaviorism, constructivism, social learning and cognitivism help shape and define the outcome of instructional materials. Step Process In the ADDIE concept, each step has an outcome that bleeds into the subsequent step. Analysis > Design > Development > Implementation > Evaluation Analysis Phase In the analysis phase, the instructional problem is clarified, the instructional goals and objectives are established and the learning environment and learner's existing knowledge and skills are identified. Below are some of the questions that are addressed during the analysis phase: • Who is the audience and what are their characteristics? • What is the new behavioral outcome? • What types of learning constraints exist? • What are the delivery options? • What are the online pedagogical considerations? • What are the Adult Learning Theory considerations? • What is the timeline for project completion? Design Phase The design phase deals with learning objectives, assessment instruments, exercises, content, subject matter analysis, lesson planning and media selection. The design phase should be systematic and specific. Systematic means a logical, orderly method of identifying, developing and evaluating a set of planned strategies targeted for attaining the project's goals. Specific means each element of the instructional design plan needs to be executed with attention to details. These are steps involved in design phase: • Document the project's instructional, visual and technical design strategy • Apply instructional strategies according to the intended behavioral outcomes by domain (cognitive, affective, and psychomotor). • Design the user interface and user experience Training & Learning
  8. 8. Trainer’s Guide to Successful Training • Create prototype • Apply visual design (graphic design) Development Phase The development phase is where instructional designers and developers create and assemble the content assets that were blueprinted in the design phase. In this phase, storyboards and graphics are designed. If elearning is involved, programmers develop and/or integrate technologies. Testers perform debugging procedures. The project is reviewed and revised according to the feedback received. Implementation Phase During the implementation phase, a procedure for training the facilitators and the learners is developed. The facilitators' training should cover the course curriculum, learning outcomes, method of delivery, and testing procedures. Preparation of the learners includes training them on new tools (software or hardware) and student registration. This is also the phase where the project manager ensures that the books, hands-on equipment, tools, CD-ROMs and software are in place, and that the learning application or website is functional. Evaluation Phase The evaluation phase consists of two parts: formative and summative. Formative evaluation is present in each stage of the ADDIE process. Summative evaluation consists of tests designed for domain specific criterion-related referenced items and providing opportunities for feedback from the users which were identified Training & Learning