Jules MicheletFrench historian was first touse the term Renaissance in 1858
Jacob Burckhardt His use of the term in 1860 made it it a permanent fixture
Giorgio VassariLives of the ArtistsReferred to the agebetween Greco-Roman andRenaissance as the“degenerate period”and first to call it theMiddle Ages. It stuck!
Signifies the rediscovery and utilization of ancient virtues, skills, knowledge, and culture which had been lost in the barbarous centuries follow the fall of Rome in the West c. fifth century A.D. ~Paul Johnson Most generations, however, look back to some golden age The 9th century under Charlemagne The 12th century under Hildebrand who formed what later became universities Events like these may be called a proto-renaissanceand from them universities like Notre Dame and Oxford emerged
But why didn’t the proto-renaissances spread and sustain themselves Two Reasons: Money ~ “The root of all civilization is money” ~ Will Durant In late Middle Ages wealth was being produced in great quantity Occupations of large-scale commerce and banking florished With the accumulation of wealth came the patronage of the art, architecture, literature, and music The Human Element http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i3byt7xMSCA http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QpydugTkt1U
The Human Element http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vsCG26886w8 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QpydugTkt1U Money can buy art, but only if there are craftsmen to produce it The late Middle Ages, and the transitional 14th century had an abundance of both money and craftsmen
Workshops of all kinds emerged specializing in intermediate technology: Stone Leather Metal Wood Plaster Chemicals Fabrics Machinery Families of those who worked in these shops produced the art
Important Figures RolesCharles IV (France) King of France (Last Capetian king)King Edward III (England) Nephew of Charles IVKing Phillip VI Believed himself to successor of Charles IVThe Black Prince Son of Edward III (English General)Henry V King of England (succeeded Edward III & lead military)Joan of Arc French leader (at age 13 heard the voice of God & led the French to victory at siege of Orleans)
Stages Dates Battles Victor1st 1340-1356 Crecy & England Poitiers2nd 1364-1372 La Rochelle France3rd 1415-1424 Agincourt England4th 1428-1453 Siege of Orleans France
The Black Plague (1348) The Hundred Years War (1337-1453) The Great Schism (1309-1376)
Dante the man Born in Florence Exiled for criticism of government and church Dante the poet Classical influence Christian influence Italian influence Dante the pilgrim “Midway in the journey of our life I found myself in a dark wood…how hard to say what a harsh thing was that wood savage and rough and hard” Divine Comedy Inferno - Hell Purgatorio - Purgatory Paradiso – Paradise Sacramental view of the world & history – Beatrice and Virgil
Inferno – Hell “Ye who enter, abandon all hope.” “The hottest places in hell are reserved for those who, in times of great moral crisis, maintain their neutrality.” “The path to paradise begins in hell.” “Into the eternal darkness, into fire and into ice. ” “The devil is not as black as he is painted.” Purgatorio – Purgatory Paradiso– Paradise "My son, youve seen the temporary fire and the eternal fire; you have reached the place past which my powers cannot see. Ive brought you here through intellect and art; from now on, let your pleasure be your guide; youre past the steep and past the narrow paths. Look at the sun that shines upon your brow; look at the grasses, flowers, and the shrubs born here, spontaneously, of the earth. Among them, you can rest or walk until the coming of the glad and lovely eyes-yourself." [Virgils last words to Dante as he gives Dante the power to guide himself. Canto XXVII, Purgatorio]
Love The center of the center is love Love, then, is the very center of Divine Comedy Virgil - all sin is a distorted attempt at love Purgatory does is realign, purify and redirect our love It is love which gives rise to all our actions, and it is love "which moves the sun and the other stars” Sin is a failureor misdirectionof love Ordinate Inordinate Love too little = slothful Love too much = lustful Sacramental view of the world & history – Beatrice and Virgil O light and honor of all other poets, may my long study and the intense love that made me search your volume serve me now. You are my master and my author, you-the only one from whom my writing drew the noble style for which I have been honored."
Father of humanism Augustinian influence Influence of Cicero & Virgil Latin Scholar – discovered and copied many ancient texts His love – Laura