The Search For Spices
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The Search For Spices






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The Search For Spices The Search For Spices Presentation Transcript

  • Chapter 15 Section 1 The Search for Spices By: Tara Paakkunainen
  • Europeans Explore the Seas
      • Crusades introduced Europeans to Asian goods.
      • Black Death and breakup of the Mongol Empire disrupted trade.
      • Most valued items were
        • spices, such as cinnamon, cloves, nutmeg, and pepper.
      • The cheif source of spices was the Moluccas
  • Motives
      • 1400's, Muslims and Italian merchants controlled most trade between Asia and Europe.
      • Europeans wanted to gain direct acces to Asian good
        • First Portugal sought a trade that bypassed the Mediterranean and then Spain did.
  • Improved Technology
      • Cartographers who, were map mapmakers and they created more accurate maps and sea charts.
      • Astrolabe which could determine their latitude at sea.
      • Portuguese developed the caravel which was an advanced ship that combined the square sails of European ship with Arab triangular sails.
  • Portugal Sails Eastward
      • Portugal led the way for exploration by the 1400’s.
      • At Sagres Prince Henry gathered scientists and cartographers to prepare maps and train crew members for long voyages.
      • He then sent them out to explore the western coast of Africa.
      • In 1460 Henry died but the Portuguese still continued their quest.
      • The rounded tip became known as the Cape of Good Hope because it opened the way for a sea route to Asia.
  • India
      • In 1497 Vasco da Gama led a 10-month voyage.
      • He acquired a cargo of spices that he sold at a profit of 3,000 percent.
      • In 1502 he forced a treaty of friendship on the ruler Calicut.
      • He left Portuguese merchants there to buy spices when they were low and store them till the next fleet came.
      • The Portuguese seized key ports around the Indian Ocean to create vast trading post.
  • Columbus
      • Christopher Columbus wanted to reach the Indies by sailing west across the Atlantic.
      • He made two mistakes first he underestimated the size of the earth and two he did not know of the two continents in his way.
      • Ferdinand & Isabella financed his voyage.
      • On August 3, 1492 Columbus sailed west with three small ships the Pinta, the Nina, and the Santa Maria.
      • In 1493 he returned to Spain.
      • Other Europeans realized that Columbus had found a route to continents previously unknown to them.
  • Line of Demacration
      • Both Spain and Portugal pressed claims to the lands that Columbus explored.
      • In 1493 Pope Alexander VI set a Line of Demarcation dividing the non-European world into two zones.
      • Spain and exploring and trading rights in any lands west of the line and Portugal had the same rights east of the line.
      • In 1507 a German Cartographer labeled the region America and the Islands that Columbus had explored in the Caribbean became known as the West Indies.
  • The Search Continues
      • In 1513 Vasco Nunez de Balboa found a huge body of water which he named the South Sea.
      • On September 20, 1519 Ferdinand Magellan set out of Spain with five ships.
      • In November 1520 Magellan’s ships charted a passage that became known as the Strait of Magellan that emerged into Balboa’s South Sea
        • Magellan renamed it the Pacific-peaceful-Ocean.
      • Magellan sailed across the Pacific to the West Indies and ended up sailing for four months.
      • In 1512 the fleet reached the Philippines.
      • Magellan was killed there in a local conflict.
  • Search Continues
      • Only 1 ship and 18 sailors had completed the voyage.
      • On September 8, 1522 the survivors had reached Seville, they were the first people to circumnavigate the world.
      • In 1497 King Henry VII of England sent John Cabot to seek a more northerly route than the one Columbus had charted.
        • He found rich fishing land off of Newfoundland which he claimed for England.
      • French Captain Jacques Cartier explored the St, Lawrence River.
      • Henry Hudson who was sailing for the Dutch explored the Hudson River.
        • But neither of them had found a route to Asia but the search still continued for centuries.