Information Retrieval (for beginners)
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  • 1. Information Retrieval James Melzer June 15, 2006 1
  • 2. How Does Search Work? 2
  • 3. The basics of search • A search engine mediates between user’s query and metadata surrogates for documents • Documents are reduced to metadata • User’s need is translated into a query • Query terms are used to find matching metadata terms • Lots and lots of room for error... 3
  • 4. The search process 1. Crawl content for metadata 2. Index document terms into an inverted file; an inverted file is very fast to search 3. Search the index to identify the result set; search the index - not the documents 4. Rank the results for display; ranking is the hardest part 4
  • 5. Search algorithm 1 Term-based Ranking (tf/idf) • tf = term frequency documents that use the query terms most are presumed to be most relevant • idf = inverse document frequency terms that are more rare are better indicators of relevance • Assumptions 1) relevance can be measured with document terms 5
  • 6. Search algorithm 2 PageRank (Google) • Relevant set is still identified by term matching • A revolution in ranking: based on linking between documents • Assumptions: 1) important sites link to other important sites 2) if many people link to a site, it is important 6
  • 7. Citation Analysis • Authors carefully select articles to cite • The more citations an article gets, the better it must be • Citations by authors who have a lot of citations confers their power to those they cite • Aggregate and leverage all these small individual decisions... 7
  • 8. How Complex is Google? Google has about 36 ranking algorithms Examples: Citation Analysis Statistical Clustering Parsing Document Structure Parsing Data in the Document Microcontent Parsing 8
  • 9. How to Make Search Better? 9
  • 10. Evaluating Search Recall the percentage of all relevant documents retrieved 100% recall means every relevant document is retrieved Precision the percentage of documents retrieved that are relevant 100% precision means only relevant documents are retrieved 10
  • 11. Thoughts & Reservations about Evaluating Search • Precision and Recall are usually inversely proportional, so improving one often reduces the other. • Given a corpus of content like the web (tens of billions of items)... Recall is unmeasurable, and thus essentially meaningless • What is relevance? • Measuring Precision depends on an agreed definition of relevance, which is tricky (human cataloging is only about 80% ‘accurate’ - relevance is very hard to quantify)
  • 12. Zipf Best Bets • Manually selected results, tied to specific query terms or phrases • User-driven phrases select the most-used phrases from search traffic; go for easy wins, because returns diminish sharply • Business-driven phrases select phrases important to the business; such as product names or office locations; or politically sensitive phrases, so you can control the message people see 12
  • 13. Relevance Feedback • The user provides direct or indirect feedback on the search results • Click tracking • “More like this” or “Find similar” • Clustering 13
  • 14. Structured Search • Designers use patterns in search behavior to guess user’s intent; this requires a substantial understanding of user behavior; it may require structured content (although, not necessarily) Examples • Zip Code -> Zip Code Lookup Tool • Person’s name -> Directory Listing • Product Name -> Shop or Support? • Address -> Map this? • Topic -> Introduction, Forms, Policies or Reports? 14
  • 15. Controlled Vocabularies • Classification with a controlled vocabulary is the best way to ensure 100% Recall • Lead-in synonyms enter “fridge”; get “refrigerator” instead; best if the collection is well-cataloged increases precision (e.g. in a library) • Term-expansion synonyms; enter “refrigerator”; get “fridge” too; best if the collection is not well-cataloged increases recall at the cost of precision (e.g on eBay) • Spell check on query phrases 15
  • 16. Why is search important? IF: About half of all users prefer to search first* THEN: What percentage of a content site’s development effort should be devoted to search? * This statistic is highly context-dependent. People’s behavior depends on the context of their actions. The stat is from Jared Spool. 16
  • 17. Questions? James Melzer Information Architect SRA International 17