With independence we faced two major nutritional problems:
(N.P.A.G.-Pilot Project):Nutrition Programme for Adolescent Girls, a Pilot project,
he main objective of AkshayaPatra's Mid-Day Meal Scheme is to help underprivileged children by providing them with a healthy, balanced meal that they would otherwise have to work for. The meal is an incentive for them to continue their education. It helps reduce the dropout rate to an enormous extent and increases classroom attendance.Other objectives include improve socialization among castes, address malnutrition and empower women through employment.
From 2002-2003 it has been transferred to State Plan along with the National Social Assistance Programme comprising the National Old Age Pension Scheme and the National Family Benefit Scheme. The funds for the transferred scheme are being released by the Ministry of Finance as Additional Central Assistance (ACA) to the State Plan and the States have the requisite flexibility in the choice of beneficiaries and implementation. The food grains are released to the State Governments on the existing norms at BPL rates.
National nutritional programmes in india
Dr Utpal Sharma
Dr Debadeep Kalita
Department of Community Medicine
Gauhati medical college, Guwahati
Threat of famine and the resultant acute starvation due to low agricultural
production and the lack of an appropriate food distribution system
Chronic energy and micronutrient deficiencies due to:
Low dietary intake because of poverty and low purchasing power;
High prevalence of infection because of poor access to safe-drinking water,
sanitation and health care;
Poor utilization of available facilities due to low literacy and lack of
1st phase- 1930’s the clinical/medical phase
2nd phase- The food production phase in 1940’s
Over few past decades India attained self sufficiency in food production in 1970
through various interventions:
Public distribution system
R&D in the field of nutrition by NIN & CFTRI
3rd phase-the community phase….
Direct interventions through national nutritional programmes in late1960’s and early
70’s with inception of ‘5-year plans’
Number of short-term measures to combat problems of malnutrition.
Undernutrition is found mostly in rural areas
4th phase- the multi sectoral phase…..
Ministry of Rural Development
Applied nutrition programme
Ministry of Social Welfare
Integrated child development services scheme
Balwadi nutrition programme
Special nutrition programme
Ministry of Health and Family Welfare
National nutritional anemia prophylaxis programme
National prophylaxis programme for prevention of blindness
due to vitamin A deficiency
National iodine deficiency disorder control programme
Ministry of Education
Mid-day meal programme
One of the earliest nutritional programmes.
This project was started in Orissa on 1963
Later extended to Tamilnadu and UP
Promoting production and of protective food such Vegetables and
Ensure their consumption by pregnant & lactating women and
1973 its extended to all states in INDIA
Nutrition worth 25 paise for children and 50 paise for pregnant and
lactating women for 52 days in a year
The programme maintained by Ministry of Rural Development.
This was started in 1970 under the department of social
welfare through voluntary organisations.
Voluntary organisations receiving the grants are responsible
for the running of this program
Preschool children 3-5years of age.
300kcal and 10gm protein for 270 days in a year.
Also provide with pre school education
Balawadis are being phased out because universalization of
Started in 1970 by Ministry of Social Welfare.
Operation in urban slums, tribal areas and backward rural areas.
Operated under minimum need programme
Main aim is to improve nutritional status in targeted group.
Children below 6 years
Pregnant and lactating women
Preschool children : 300kcal and 10-12gm protein
Pregnant & lactating mothers :500kcal and 25 gm protein
Total of 300 days in a year
Fund for nutrition component of ICDS programme was shared with SNP budget
This programme is gradually being merged into ICDS
Initiated-Oct.2,1975, in 33 CD Blocks under 5th Five Year Plan
Under aegis of Ministry of social welfare
In succession to objectives of National Children's Policy (Aug. 1974)
World’s largest program for early childhood development
Centrally sponsored scheme implemented by state/UT govts.
Routine MCH services not reaching target Population
Nutritional component not covered by Health services
Need for community participation
Lay the foundation for proper psychological, physical and social
development of child
Improve nutritional & health status of children
Reduce incidence of mortality, morbidity, malnutrition and
Enhance the capability of mother & family
Achieve effective coordination among various departments
Children < 6 years
Pregnant & Lactating women
Women in Reproductive age group (15-44 yr)
Adolescent Girls (in selected Blocks)
Non-formal pre-school education
Nutrition and Health Education
Administration of the scheme
Community development block-Rural areas
Tribal blocks-tribal areas
Wards/ slums –urban areas
Service through Anganwadi:
Type AWC/Population Mini AWC
Urban 500-1500 Nil
Rural 500-1500 150-500
Tribal 300-1500 150-300
Urban 400-800 Nil
Rural 400-800 150-400
Tribal 300-800 150-300
Department of Women & Child Development, Ministry of Human Resource Development
Department of social welfare
CDPO (100 villages)
Medical officer (20-25) villages
Mukhya sevika (20-25 AWC)
Multipurpose worker (F) (4-5 no.)
Anganwadi worker (5-6 Anganwadi centres)
Supplementary feeding and Growth monitoring.
Prophylaxis against Vit. A deficiency.
Control of Nutritional Anemia.
Target group identified from community.
They are provided supplementary feeding support for 300 days
in a year.
Weight for age growth cards are maintained for all children < 6
Severely malnourished children are given special
supplementary feeding and referred to medical services.
Revised financial norms for food supplement
Beneficiary Pre-revised Revised w.e.f. Feb. 2009
Calories (KCal) Protein
Children (6-72 months) 300 8-10 500 12-15
children (6-72 months)
600 20 800 20-25
Pregnant & Lactating 500 15-20 600 18-20
Category Pre-revised Revised w.e.f June 2010
Children (6-72 months) Rs. 2.00 Rs.4.84
Severely malnourished children (6-72
Rs. 2.70 Rs.5.82
Pregnant & Lactating Rs. 2.30 Rs.6.00
Centrally sponsored programme, launched in 1986.
Implemented by the Ministry of Women & Child Development
Programme follows the norms of SNP.
Providing nutritious/ energy food to children below 6 years of
age and expectant /lactating women from disadvantaged sections
Implemented through ICDS
Food grains supplied under the programme- used to prepare
food for supplementary nutrition in ICDS
Introduced in the year 2002-2003 with 100% Central Assistance
1. Improve Nutritional and health status adolescent girls.
2. Provide nutrition and health education to the beneficiaries.
3. Empower adolescent girls through increased awareness to take better care of
their personal health and nutrition needs.
Adolescent girls <35 Kg
Pregnant women <45 kg
6 Kg ration per month for three months consecutively.
Implemented through the A.W. Centres
Weighing four times in a year
on the basis of the body weight, issuance of live rice will continue for 3 months.
In Assam, Kokrajhar and Karbi-Anglong as pilot districts.
Total of 230 blocks
Total 58118 functioning AWCs
Feeding days covered in 2011-12- 177days (target
Food sponsored for programme -90% of budget in NE
Provision of breakfast @ Rs 2 since 2010-11 to be continued till 2013
Programme was launched during 4th 5-year plan in 1970
by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare
Prevention of nutritional anemia in mothers and children
Supplementary iron on daily basis is considered necessary in developing
countries because approaches like food fortification and dietary modification
are long term options.
Requirements during 2nd and 3rd trimester can’t be made by daily intake.
Majority of girls are anemic , even in their adolescence.
Souce: Gopalan C. child care in india: emerging challenger bull.1993
Deleterious effect on neural tube development in folic acid development
during 1st 4 weeks of pregnancy
Source: Rosenberg IH. Folic acid and neural tube defect . Time for action? New Eng J.Med; 1992
Children 1-5years of age
Expecting and lactating mothers
Family planning (IUD) acceptors
Expecting and lactating mothers as well as IUD acceptors
-60 mg of elemental iron + 0.5 mg folate everyday for 100
Children 1-5 years- 20mg of elemental iron + 0.1 mg
folate everyday for 100 days.
In the pursuit of prevention of anemia in country….
1991-Renamed as ‘National nutritional anemia control programme’.
Beneficiaries redefined- extended to both anemic and non-anemic
lactating& expecting mothers and 1-5years children.
Dosage of iron- from 60 mg to 100mg of elemental iron daily.
IEC regarding increase consumption of iron-rich food
1992-programme was made integral part of CSSM programme
100mg Fe+0.5 folate for 100days started along 1st dose of inj T.T
Therapeutic dose- 2 tabs of Irofol for 100 days.
1997- Programme is integrated with RCH…..
2005- Programme is integrated with NRHM……
2007 -new directives from MoH&FW, GoI
6-12 months infants be included in the programme .
Dose for under 5 children in liquid formulation.
Children 6-10years & adolescent 11-18years included
6-59month children-liquid 20 mg Fe+ 0.1 mg Folate for 100 days
6-10 years-1 tab. 30 mg Fe+ 0.25 mg Folate for 100 days.
Adolescent & adults-1 tab. 100 mg Fe+ 0.5 mg Folate for 100 days
Folic acid tab.(500μg) is given in 1st trimester in first 4 weeks.
Pilot districts as Kamrup and Dibrugarh selected for iron sucrose injection
Beneficiaries : Moderate and severe anemia with Hb <9gm/dl detected in 2nd
trimester and early 3rd trimester, not responding to IFA oral tablet.
Dosage : 100 mg per 5ml, 2 ampoules for each beneficiaries.
Also known as WIFS-Blue campaign.
Nodal agency- Ministry of H&FW
Adolescent girls/boys enrolled in school, 6th- 12th std.
Adolescent girls not enrolled in schools
IFA tablet to target population on weekly basis on a fixed
day(Monday) for 52 weeks.
Biannual deworming (February and August)
Ministry of education
Out of school students
Ministry of Social Welfare
Launched in 1970 as a centrally sponsored scheme by
Ministry of H&FW, GoI.
Component of National programme for
control of blindness1976
Target group- all children 1-3 years of age.
Activity –Megadose of vit.A (2 lac IU) orally every six months
Human liver can store vitamin A when consumed in excess of daily requirements.
The stored Vitamin A is released when in need
8th 5-year plan- vitamin A supplementation linked with immunization
10th 5-year plan- Megadoses to given biannually in pre-summer &
2006-07-to cover all the children in 6months to 5 years age.
Short term strategy
Administation of supplemental dose of Vit. A in Arachis oil.
6-11months-1 dose of 1 lac IU.
1-5 years- 2 lac IU bianually.
Long term strategy
Promotion of regular intake of Vit A- rich food.
Feeding locally available food.
Kitchen gardening of Vit A-rich food.
Treatment of Vit A defciency
Immediately after diagnosis-2 lac IU followed by another dose of 2 lac
IU 1-4 weeks later.
The beginning-Kangra valley study (1956-72)
National Goitre Control Programme launched in 1962, at the end of 2nd
5-year plan by Ministry of H&FW ,GoI.
Focuses on use of Iodised Salt – Replace of common salt with iodised
salt, Cheapest method to control IDD.
Use of Iodized oil Injection to those suffering from IDD, Oral
administration as prophylaxis in IDD severe areas
No State or UT in India is free from IDD, as evident from the surveys carried by ICMR
Iodine deficiency leads to a spectrum of disorders mostly affecting physical and
The fact that human brain development is completed by 3 years of age , iodine
deficiency in early age leads to permanent and irreversible damage.
Fortification of salt is a preventive programme, can be considered as a ‘vaccine’
Dr V Ramalingaswami (1921 - 2001)
The turning point- meeting of prime minister in 1983.
1983- Universal iodisation of salt (30 ppm at manufacture level
and 15ppm at consumption level)
1992- programme renamed as ‘National iodine deficiency
Surveys to assess the magnitude of IDD.
Supply of iodised salt
Resurveys 5yearly to assess impact of iodised salt & IDD
Lab monitering of iodised salt and UIE
Iodise entire edible salt in the countryby 1992.
Ban of non-iodised salt under PFA act (1954).
Goitre survey- 18 districts covered since 2009
Salt survey completed in 19 district (2012)
42 blocks- >75% population using salt with <15ppm iodine
content of salt
IDD monitoring lab functional but UIE estimation yet to be
UIE estimation done in state health laboratory,
3 iodisation plants exists in state- Dibrugarh, Lakhimpur
First started in Tamilnadu.
Also known as School lunch programme.
Programme in operation since 1961 under Ministry of Education.
To provide at least one nourishing meal to school going children per day.
Improve the school attendance
Reduce school drop outs
Beneficial impact on child’s nutrition
Supplement and not a substitute to home diet.
Supply at least 1/3 of the energy requirement and 1/2 of the protein needed
The cost of meal should be reasonably low.
Meal prepared easily in schools, no complicating cooking procedures
Locally available foods should be used
The menu should be frequently changed
Started in 2000, feeding 1500 children in 5 schools in Bangalore.
Successfully involved private sector participation in the programme.
Programme managed with a centralized kitchen that runs through a
Food delivered to schools in sealed and heat retaining containers just
before the lunch break every day
Providing underprivileged children with a healthy, balanced meal .
Reduce the dropout rate and increases classroom attendance.
Improve socialization among castes, address malnutrition
Empower women through employment.
Assam is the 8th state in the run
Launched on 19 feb 2010
20 thousand students of 260 schools of the district in the first phase.
Launched in 2000-2001 by Ministry of Rural Development
Senior citizens of ≥65 years of age, not getting the pension under the National
Old Age Pension Scheme (NOAPS)
10 kgs. of food grains/person/month are supplied free of cost.
Under Assam Bikash Yojna.
Beneficiaries are pregnant mothers
Rs. 1000 provided for nutrition and ambulance
Antyodaya Anna Yojna
Launched in 25th Dec 2000
Aim- to create hunger-free india in next 5 year and reform PDS
Target group- poor families who couldn’t afford food grains even at BPL rates
Service- 35 kg/Family/month of wheat @Rs 2/- & rice @Rs 3/-
CM’s Vision for Women and Children 2016
Yet to roll out….
Launched by Dept. of Women and Child Development ,Ministry of Human
Resource Development in 1991
Targeted All adolescent girls in the age group of 11-18 years
1. Watch over menarche,
3. General health check-ups once in every six-months,
4. Training for minor ailments,
6. Prophylactic measures against anemia, goiter, vitamin deficiency, etc., and
7. Referral to PHC. District hospital in case of acute need.
8. Girls are also provided supplementary nutrition at Rs. 2.50 per girl, per day
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