Camera Lighting Music Art Department Sound Production Direction
Camera crews need to be very vigilante but also gentle with the equipment they use. They are a vital part to creating a film and they work with the lighting department so the lighting and the camerawork works well together. They are very creative and they are fluent with the camera shots they use; the camera crews make a camera movement almost invisible. Camera crews work with a lot of other specialists such as crane operators to create the perfect shot. There are four people on one camera, all doing different jobs. As well as these, there are other job roles: Director of Photography The Director of Photography works with every Script Supervisor department to make sure each scene is the best possible Camera Operator quality they can make it. 1st Assistant Camera The Camera Operator makes sure everything is in working 2 Assistant Camera nd order and it is ready for the next scene; they also work with the 1st Assistant Camera man who focus the camera Camera Trainee and the 2nd Assistant Camera man who helps to move the Steadicam Operator camera during a shot. The Camera Trainee does everything the others don’t want to do which is filing out Aerial Director of Photography camera reports and making tea or coffee etc. Aerial Camera Pilot Aerial Camera Assistant The rest of the job roles include: Marine and Diving Crew Taking shots in the air from helicopters or planes such as Crane Operator Aerial Camera Pilots which need a lot of expertise to do this. Video Assist Operator A Crane Operator for other shots that are in the air. A Marine and Diving Crew for underwater filming and other specialists.
The lighting crews are also very important in creating a film but not only are they important, the light of day and the artificial light is also important. The lighting crew set up different lighting equipment to change the mood or the atmosphere; if the lighting crew get it wrong then it could destroy the mood and the scene. The lighting department work on ideas that the director, the designer, costume department etc. Then the lighting team choose their equipment working around the brief they have been given. The lighting department are trained to work safely with electricity and the dangers they have; therefore, most of the lighting department are qualified electricians. As well as the lighting department, the other job roles are: Director Of Photography The Director Of Photography makes sure that the film has got its look; they make sure that everything the lighting Gaffer department do, is correct such as, the way the lighting falls Best Boy on an actors face. Gaffers are in charge of the whole electrical work on a Lighting Technician production; the gaffer also leads the technicians to create Moving Light Operator the desired effect. The Best Boy or Assistant Chief Technician co-ordinate Practical Lighting Technician the light technicians and do all the paperwork etc. relating Console Operator to the role. The Lighting Technician’s provide the relevant lighting to a Apprentice Lighting Technician scene, they set it up and test it. Generator Operator The Moving Light Operator creates the automated sequence for lights to move and they make sure it is working properly. The Practical Lighting Technician makes sure there is a suitable power supply for the lighting at a certain location as well as making sure all the equipment is safe. The Console Operator operate all the generic, conventional or fixed lights; they also operate the Dimmer Board to mix the lighting effects. The Apprentice Lighting Technician becomes familiar with all the equipment, learns how to use it, tests it etc. The Generator Operator fixes and maintains the generators that they use during productions on the road for lighting etc.
Music can play a main role in genres such as musicals and dramas; however, they can also be in the background that could change the atmosphere of a scene. Music can be diegetic or non-diegetic depending on what the scene is; music can change the scene completely through the pace, mood etc. The music department can also choose any music that will fit into the genre of the scene as well as the mood of it. Feature films can have their own soundtrack’s created but they can also use soundtrack’s already created. A Composer writes the music that is appropriate to a film or scene; composer’s increase the reactionKey Roles of the audience and impact of the film as well as Composer giving the atmosphere through the music they Music/Composer Agent create. Music Supervisor The Music/Composer Agent work for the composerOther Roles and they secure deals and contracts on films so the composer can do the music for the production. Musicians Contractor Music Researcher The Music Supervisor acts as a mediator for the production team and composers and they negotiate Music Arranger the deals. Orchestrator Copyist Song Writer
Films can be located anywhere; creating the visual world or setting for a film is the role of the Art Department. The look of sets or locations transports audiences into the world of the story, and is an essential element in making films convincing and evocative. These settings are rarely left to chance by film makers; a great deal of work and imagination goes into constructing appropriate backdrops to any story. The Art Department usually employs the largest number of people on any film crew. On big budget fantasy, period drama or sci-fi films, the Art Department Offices, and Drawing and Construction Studios can occupy a vast area and employ hundreds of talented people. Production Designer Production Designers are major heads of department on film crews, and are responsible for the entire art department. They play a crucial role in helping directors to achieve the films Art Director visual requirements. Supervising Art Director Art Directors act as project managers for the biggest department on any film, the art department. They facilitate the production designers creative vision for all the locations and Standby Art Director sets that eventually give the film its unique visual identity. Assistant Art Director Supervising Art Directors have a primarily organisational role on big budget films which require a number of sets and involve large art departments. They manage the budget and Set Director schedule, enabling production designers to translate their vision into reality. Production Buyer Standby Art Directors monitor the art departments work on set during filming on behalf of the Production Designer. Specialist Researcher Assistant Art Directors translate ideas into practical realities, initial sketches become worked- Storyboard Artist up drawings from which a variety of craftsmen build sets or adapt locations. Set Decorators provide anything that furnishes a film set, excluding structural elements. Production Buyers provide administrative support to set decorators, and carefully monitor and control the set decorating budget to avoid overspending. Specialist Researchers work closely with the production designer, the supervising art director, art director and set decorator, but also provide backup in the form of detailed research to the entire art department. Storyboard Artists translate screenplays, or sequences from screenplays, into a series of illustrations in comic book form.
The best known role within the Direction department is clearly the Director, this is the person who is responsible for the creative vision and overall style of a feature film; the Director is also supported by a number of Assistants, who ensure that the Director’s ambitions are achieved during the filming process by providing logistical, organisational and time-management support. Film Director The Director is the driving creative force in a films production, and acts as the crucial link between the First Assistant Director production, technical and creative teams. Second Assistant Director The First Assistant Director is the directors right hand person, taking responsibility for a number of important Third Assistant Director practicalities so that the director is free to concentrate Floor Runner on the creative process. The Second Assistant Director is the first assistant directors right hand person. The Third Assistant Director supports and assists the first and second assistant directors in whatever ways are necessary on the set or location. The Floor Runner is the accepted and conventional entry-level position within the film production industry - the first rung on the ladder.
Recording all sound on set or on location is the work of the Production Sound Crew which includes Production Sound Mixers, Boom Operators, and Sound Assistants; on bigger films, Sound Trainees may also be employed. Ensuring that the dialogue recorded during film shoots is suitably clear is a complex job; most film sets are challenging for the Sound Department because there are often unwanted noises to deal with, or the desired camera shots and the placing of microphones get in the way of each other. Sound Designer Sound Designers are responsible for providing any required sounds to accompany screen action. Production Sound Mixer Production Sound Mixers are responsible for the difficult job of Sound Assistant recording sound, dialogue and ensuring that dialogue recorded Boom Operator during filming is suitably clear. Sound Assistants are the third members of the Production Music Editor sound crew and provide general back up and support to the production sound mixer and the boom operator. Boom Operators are responsible for placing the microphone in the best position, without impeding camera operation, or hampering actors freedom to perform. Music Editors help directors to achieve their musical ambitions on films, and provide a crucial link between the film and the composer.
Casting Costume Hair and Make Up Performing Scripts
Good casting is vital if films are to be successful and if the audience will find the films successful. Ensuring that the most suitable actors are cast requires a lot of knowledge about the available actors and the best candidates. Directors often work with the same Casting Director on many films, entrusting their taste, imagination and ability to deliver the best possible casts. Depending on the style of the film, Directors may be prepared to take creative risks by using non professional actors; this can require months of research and auditioning by Casting Directors. They also play a crucial role in contacting A-List stars and negotiating deals. Casting Director Casting Directors organise and facilitate the casting of actors Casting Assistant for all the roles in a film. The Casting Assistant help the casting directors in good casting, this is crucial to making characters credible on screen, and is fundamentally important to a films success.
The Costume Department is responsible for the: design, fitting, hire, purchase, manufacture, continuity and care of all costume items on feature films. The Costume Department is also responsible for: jewellery, footwear, corsetry, hosiery, millinery and sometimes wig-work. Costume is integral in defining the overall image of the film. It provides the audience with information about the period, culture and society the Actors inhabit and, on a more subtle level, the underlying themes of the film itself. Costume Designer Wardrobe Supervisor Costume Designers start working on costumes for TV, films and Costume Supervisor theatre at the beginning of pre-production. They are in charge of Costume Maker designing, creating, acquiring and hiring all costumes for actors and Costume Design Assistant extras. Wardrobe Supervisors start work on productions shortly before Costume Daily shoots begin. Costume Assistant Costume Supervisors are responsible for translating designers ideas and designs into practical reality. Costume Makers for feature films interpret designs, and fit, manufacture and alter costumes that for some reason cannot be bought or hired. Costume Design Assistants start work on productions shortly after Designers, and liaise with the entire costume department. Costume Daily are employed on films on a day-to-day basis as temporary staff, rather than as part of the core costume team. Costume Assistants are responsible for carrying out any tasks allocated to them by costume designers, costume design assistants, costume supervisors and wardrobe supervisors.
The Hair and Make-up Department is responsible for the design, application, continuity and care of hair and make-up during feature film production. They are a key component in the overall design of a film. Make-up and Hair Designers usually work on feature films and high budget Make-Up and Hair Designer television dramas and must be proficient in both make-up and hair Make-Up Artist techniques. Make-up Artists work on feature films and on some commercials and pop Hairdresser promos, working for the Chief Make-up Artist. Prosthetics Artist Hairdressers work on feature films and on some commercials and pop promos. They liaise closely with colleagues in the hair, make-up and costume Assistant Hairdresser departments, as well as with directors, actors and extras. They prepare Assistant Make-Up Artist performers scalp and skin and create hairstyles to suit production requirements. Prosthetics Artists work on feature films and in television on commercials, pop promos, corporate productions, light entertainment programmes, documentary dramas, etc. Prosthetics are appliances made of rubber, plastic, gelatine, silicone, or any other material that can be affixed to an Actors face or body, in order to change their shape and/or appearance. Assistant Hairdressers work on feature films and are responsible to hairdressers, chief hairdressers and/or designers. Their responsibilities vary depending on the size of the production. Assistant Make-up Artists work on feature films and on some commercials, and are responsible to make-up artists, and chief make-up artists and/or designers. Their responsibilities vary depending on the size of the production.
Film Actors work with the Director to create believable characters. They must be able to learn their lines quickly, while sometimes repeating the same scene many times over, for re-takes, and while scenes are shot from different angles. Actors should also know their fellow Actors lines, so that they can respond to them appropriately, with the correct lines and in the correct time. They need to remember their exact positions and movements at any given time during the performance, to assist with continuity. They must also be able to continually hit their marks on set, without looking down to locate them. Actor Film Actors work with the Director to create believable, natural Agent characters expressing the appropriate emotions, based on the Scriptwriters words. Choreographer Agents find work for their clients; they co-ordinate their Singer contracts, and secure appropriate deals for them. Choreographers work with directors, producers, designers and Puppeteer other members of the production team to plan, create and realise Stunt Performer the dance or movement design concept. Singers must perform the music given them to the best of their Supporting Artists ability. Most singers specialise in one genre, but some may work across several disciplines. Puppeteers bring inanimate objects to life in order to make them perform and interpret scripts with the same degree of integrity as actors. Stunt Performers are employed to take actors places when dangerous or specialised actions are specified in the script, or to perform roles requiring specific skills. Supporting Artists are employed to provide background action on film and television productions.
The screenplay provides a written blueprint for the entire film making process. The script development process starts either with a Screenwriter writing a screenplay for sale to a production company, or with a Producer hiring a Screenwriter to write a screenplay based on: a concept, a true story, an existing screen work, or another literary work. An interesting, well-written, well- structured, and properly formatted screenplay does not guarantee a good finished film. Experienced Screenwriters and Production companies therefore spend many years developing stories and perfecting screenplays, and many more screenplays are developed than actually produced. Screen Writer Development Executive Screen Writers are responsible for researching the story, developing the narrative, writing the screenplay, and Script Editor delivering it, in the required format, to development Script Reader executives. Development Executives have the primary responsibility for seeking out interesting screenwriters and stories, developing screenplays for production, and managing their organisations development slate. Script Editors provide a critical overview of the screenwriting process, and liaise between the producer or development executive and the screenwriter. Script Readers must have specific skills in analysing screenplays. They evaluate screenwriters work, and make recommendations about the next stage in the process.
Accounts Health and Safety Locations Distribution Exhibition Transport
This is exactly the same for production companies as it is for any business, a film productions financial resources must be carefully managed and controlled by skilled Accountants. In the film industry their role is particularly critical; because large sums of money need to be accumulated and spent within a relatively short period of time, and continuous changes to budgets occur throughout: development, pre-production, production and post-production. Film Production Accountants need to understand Production Accounting not only the principles of accurate book keeping and Financial Controller accountancy, but also those of the wider film Production Accountant making process. There are two types of Financial Controllers who Assistant Accountant perform different roles depending on the specific circumstances of film productions. Production Accountants are responsible for managing finances and maintaining financial records during film production. Assistant Accountants are experienced bookkeepers who assist Production Accountants and Key Assistant Accountants to control finances during feature film production.
Under health and safety legislation, the main responsibility for health and safety lies with the employer involved and the organisation/s in control of the premises and facilities. In the film industry this may be: the investor/client, producer, production company, contractor, designer, supplier, facilities company or studio. All film occupations have a health and safety element attached to them, but the following specialist staff are also hired to ensure protection for cast and crew. Health and Safety Advisors in the film industry give Health and Safety Advisor advice on health and safety management systems Paramedics within each film or production, reviewing each companys health and safety policy, and ensuring that Unit Nurse health and safety arrangements and the appropriate personnel are in place. Paramedical practitioners work on an occasional basis, and must have relevant qualifications and experience in the medical field, and ideally some experience within the film or creative media industries. Unit Nurses provide first aid cover and primary healthcare to the cast and crew on a film production.
Very few films are shot entirely in studio sets. Even the most fantasised stories may use real locations to bring the characters and stories to life. Location Managers must understand the Directors ideas for a film in order to find the most suitable locations. The search for the right location can take months of research. Once the location has been found, careful negotiations must be carried out about: costs, access, noise, parking and permissions. On big films involving many locations, excellent logistical expertise is required of the entire Location department. Unit Managers liaise between the film crew and the Unit Manager location, making sure that the propertys residents or landlords are kept informed and happy so that Location Manager filming can progress quickly. Assistant Location Manager Location Managers primary role is to identify and find ideal locations for a film shoot, reporting to the Producer, Director and Production Designer. The work of Assistant Location Managers is logistical, providing back up to the Location Manager.
Film distribution involves launching and maintaining films in the marketplace. Film Distributors must connect each film they release with a wide range of audiences; because every new title is distinctive and different, Distributors must be strategic and knowledgeable about promotion and publicity in order to attract and interest audiences to see their films. Distributor Marketing and Publicity Manager Publicist Distributors must aim at different audiences about the Marketing Assistant films they release, in order to help filmmakers to realise Sales Agent their full potential. Marketing and Publicity Managers oversee the creation and planning of film marketing campaigns, once distributors have identified the target audiences and potential revenue. Film Publicists assist distributors in determining how to advertise films in order to maximize audience numbers. Marketing Assistants are involved in the development and implementation of marketing projects and schemes related to film releases. Film Sales Agents represent filmmakers who are looking for distribution deals for their films.
The Exhibition Department provides the final link in the film production, and they are responsible for bringing the finished product to its audience. It provides a vital service to the industry, because without faultless projection to the appropriate audience no film, can be deemed a success. Exhibition Departments may be employed in a variety of different organisations, ranging from small, art-house cinemas to large multiplexes, and from regional film festivals to national or international events. Programmers are responsible for selecting a Programmer range films either for a specific venue or, if they work for a film festival, for all the films presented during the festival. Projectionist Projectionists are responsible for ensuring that films and any associated advertisements are shown at the correct time, and without any technical problems.
The Transport Department provides crucial support to a film production. Even the lowest budget feature is likely to require at least one person to oversee the transport of cast, crew and equipment to the location of the film shoot. Transport Manager Transport Managers are in charge of managing all the large vehicles on a film production. Transport Co-ordinator Transport Co-ordinators are employed to work on Transport Captain very large-scale feature films, which have major transportation requirements. Unit Driver Transport Captains are responsible for the daily Unit Minibus Driver transportation schedule of the cast and key crew during a film shoot. Facilities Driver Unit Drivers are employed during film production to drive artists, directors, producers and/or crew members, to and from the film location. Unit Minibus Drivers work during a production as part of the driving team that transports cast, extras and crew to and from locations and unit bases. Facilities Drivers are responsible for driving, and looking after, the vehicles hired from a facilities company for use during a film shoot.
Editing and Post Production Construction Props
Post Production is the term for the final stage during the creation of the film when the raw material is edited together to form the completed film. The processes involved in Post Production include: picture editing, sound editing, composing and recording the score, music editing, adding visual special effects, adding audio sound effects. Editor The highly creative job of an Editor is to work Post Production Supervisor closely with the director after the filming is Assistant Editor completed, select shots and edit them into a series of scenes, which are in turn assembled to create a Second Assistant Editor sequence of scenes in order. Titles Designer Post Production Supervisors are responsible for the post production process. Assistant Editors are responsible for running and maintaining Editing systems. 2nd Assistant Editors are only employed on very big budget films. They assist 1st assistant editors and editors in the picture editing department. Title Designers design the opening titles for films, the captions that appear in the film giving details of time, place etc., and the end credits.
Construction Department workers play a vital role in determining the look of films: they are responsible for building, painting and plastering all the sets required for productions. They work closely with the art and design department to ensure that the directors and the production designers ideas are visually realised on sets. Construction Manager Construction Managers supervise the construction of sets and stages for film productions. They co-ordinate the entire process of set building, Plasterer from initial planning through to the final coat of paint on the finished Model Maker sets. Sculptor Plasterers working in film production are skilled craftsmen, with traditional solid plastering abilities. Rigger Model makers specialise in designing, creating and producing three- Carpenter dimensional scale models and miniatures for use on film productions. Sculptors on film productions design and create special features, such Painter as statues or complex props. Riggers install and assemble rigging gear such as scaffolding, cables and ropes. Carpenters on film productions are key members of the construction team, and they must be very skilled at their craft. Painters apply paint, varnish, wallpaper and other finishes to props, scenery and sets on film productions.
The Properties Department is responsible for the creation, operation and maintenance of all props used on feature films; props refers to any moveable item, which is meant to be visible on film. Props Master’s oversee, and are responsible for, the Props Master procurement or production, inventory, care and maintenance of all props associated with Prop Maker productions, ensuring that they are available on Armourer time, and within budgetary requirements. Prop Makers work in the properties departments of Greensman feature films, making any props that are not being Props Storeman bought in, or hired. Armourers are responsible for the transport, Dressing Props storage and use of all weaponry and firearms on Standby Props film sets. Greensmen are responsible for procuring, placing, and maintaining any vegetation on film sets. Props Storemen organise the transport, installation, storage and return of all props for film productions. Dressing Props install props on sets and locations before film crews arrive to shoot scenes. Standby Props work on set during the filming of a scene, overseeing the use of props, and monitoring their continuity.
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