Politics and Democracy Internet and Society 2008
Outline <ul><li>Smart mobs,  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organisation through ICTs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Popular revolution...
Common ideas <ul><li>Appropriation  and  social shaping  of technology </li></ul><ul><li>Importance of existing context an...
Power and Justice <ul><li>Citizens control of power of entrenched political institutions </li></ul><ul><li>How will the in...
Smart Mobs <ul><li>Many to many technologies and power to the people </li></ul><ul><li>Networks, word of mouth and collect...
Popular revolutions <ul><li>Challenge  totalitarianism or major failure of government and democracy institutions/mechanism...
Challenge to Nation-State <ul><li>Power - violence reserved for the state </li></ul><ul><li>Nation state fosters/protects ...
 
Internet in global social movements <ul><li>WTO - MAI Battle of Seattle </li></ul><ul><li>Environmentalism </li></ul><ul><...
Internet and Social Movements <ul><li>Outside established political mechanism (v. interest groups) </li></ul><ul><li>Polit...
Social Movements <ul><li>1 Coordination of resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. Time, money, Managerial interpretation </l...
Democracy <ul><li>Failure of western democracy? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low turnout </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low party mem...
Internet/IT fix <ul><li>Athenean model </li></ul><ul><li>Habermas - Public Sphere </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Historical analysi...
 
Agre: Internet and the Political Process <ul><li>Appropriation perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Amplification model </li></ul...
Institutions of politics (Agre) <ul><li>Rules, identities, roles, strategies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Legislators </li></ul><...
Agre 3 <ul><li>Reinforcement model - failure to produce change, just reinforcement of existing institutions - therefore co...
Agre 4 <ul><li>Need to reconceptualise the category of person by political and other institutions of society. </li></ul><u...
Agre 5 <ul><li>Effect of ‘Spacing’ : we are in institutional networks as well as individual ones </li></ul><ul><li>ICTs ma...
Agre 6 <ul><li>Internet allows strengthening of  established and new institutions and organisations </li></ul><ul><li>But ...
Political Parties <ul><li>How do they use the Internet? </li></ul>
 
Old and New Media: Political Blog <ul><li>Media: set agendas, filter news. </li></ul><ul><li>Why Blogs have such high impa...
Bottom up participation <ul><li>Social capital and social network approach </li></ul><ul><li>Recreate public spheres </li>...
Conclusions <ul><li>Few people politically active </li></ul><ul><li>Tools for engaging mass participation </li></ul><ul><l...
Next Week <ul><li>Surveillance and Privacy </li></ul><ul><li>Read recommended papers </li></ul><ul><li>Assignments </li></...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Internet and Society: Politics And Democracy 2009

1,245

Published on

Lecture Slides for Internet and Society course and the University of Edinburgh on the topic of the the internet, mobiles, computing and practice and theorisation of politics and democracy

1 Comment
3 Likes
Statistics
Notes
No Downloads
Views
Total Views
1,245
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
83
Comments
1
Likes
3
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Internet and Society: Politics And Democracy 2009

  1. 1. Politics and Democracy Internet and Society 2008
  2. 2. Outline <ul><li>Smart mobs, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organisation through ICTs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Popular revolution, emergent behaviour </li></ul></ul><ul><li>People power and TXT revolutions </li></ul><ul><li>Social Movements </li></ul><ul><li>Problem of democracy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ E-democracy” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Internet and democracy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Social capital, embeddedness and public sphere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blogging </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bottom up participation - empowered citizen? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Common ideas <ul><li>Appropriation and social shaping of technology </li></ul><ul><li>Importance of existing context and identity </li></ul><ul><li>Unanticipated consequences </li></ul><ul><li>Technology amplifies actions and social tensions in and between institutions </li></ul><ul><li>Technology appropriated by/and amplifying existing changes and trends </li></ul><ul><li>Many2many communication </li></ul><ul><li>Network society: active wired </li></ul><ul><li>Emergent social organisation from ubiquitous use </li></ul><ul><li>Social networks, social capital, weak ties, communities of internet and personalised community.. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Power and Justice <ul><li>Citizens control of power of entrenched political institutions </li></ul><ul><li>How will the internet be appropriated in/by political processes? </li></ul><ul><li>Can the Internet and ICTs provide a platform for holding to account, and provide alternatives to established political order? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Empower individual citizens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide information transparency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Set alternative agendas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coalesce and mobilise mass into political activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open up new forms of Governance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pluralism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In an age of managerial government, a few mainstream ideologies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How will end-to-end, mass access, many-to many, 2 way communications make a difference? </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Smart Mobs <ul><li>Many to many technologies and power to the people </li></ul><ul><li>Networks, word of mouth and collective action </li></ul><ul><li>Netwar </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Philippines, Indonesia revolutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Petrol strike, WTO </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Terrorists, Criminals, Activists. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Smart Crowds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reclaiming public spaces by collective action </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mobile Adhoc networking experiments </li></ul><ul><li>Swarming, emergence, social coordination </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Threshold levels for cooperation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coordination problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coordination knowledge - examples in Internet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Autonomous agents closely connected can produce collective action - this action is not controlled or design - it emerges </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Popular revolutions <ul><li>Challenge totalitarianism or major failure of government and democracy institutions/mechanisms. </li></ul><ul><li>Technology in hands of masses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many to many </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>one-to-one and 6 degree effect </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Failure of democracy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Zapatistas - external influence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Philippines - Church and TXT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(more recently “hello Garci”) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indonesia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Korea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ukraine etc etc </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Challenge to Nation-State <ul><li>Power - violence reserved for the state </li></ul><ul><li>Nation state fosters/protects economic activity </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional realist accounts : nation-states acting as independent agents </li></ul><ul><li>New cross-boundary challenges </li></ul><ul><li>Economic activity increasingly international - ignores borders - challenges state’s existence </li></ul><ul><li>Environment, culture, technology </li></ul><ul><li>Idealist accounts: nation-state undermined </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Weakened from above - has to bend to international institutions (commercial and governmental) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New international institutions un-democratic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Undermines national welfare state </li></ul></ul>
  8. 9. Internet in global social movements <ul><li>WTO - MAI Battle of Seattle </li></ul><ul><li>Environmentalism </li></ul><ul><li>Coordination mechanisms in planning, and action </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforce the very problem they challenge. </li></ul><ul><li>Extra-state people power - just as unaccountable </li></ul>
  9. 10. Internet and Social Movements <ul><li>Outside established political mechanism (v. interest groups) </li></ul><ul><li>Politics by unconventional means </li></ul><ul><li>Heterogenous </li></ul><ul><li>Loosely structured, fluid </li></ul><ul><li>New movements (environment,justice, women) not firmly fixed in social milieux </li></ul><ul><li>Diversity, grassroots, decentralisation, informality </li></ul><ul><li>Internet would appear to be just the thing! </li></ul>
  10. 11. Social Movements <ul><li>1 Coordination of resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. Time, money, Managerial interpretation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2 Connection to political system </li></ul><ul><li>3 Ideology and beliefs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How one should act </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Framing ideas and debates v.established media. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Many different response to Internet and ICTs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Big, established orgs. V. global informal networks. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marketing, professionalisation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Return to grassroots </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Media campaigns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Global coordination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inter-group coordination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased fragmentation </li></ul></ul>
  11. 12. Democracy <ul><li>Failure of western democracy? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low turnout </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low party membership (&trade unions etc) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support of single interest groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>End of mainstream ideological parties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mass marketing and mangerialism in politics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disconnection with voters/politicians </li></ul><ul><li>=low participation </li></ul><ul><li>Retreat to the domestic/private - reduction in social capital(Putnam) </li></ul><ul><li>Privatised social networks (Wellman, Castells etc) </li></ul>
  12. 13. Internet/IT fix <ul><li>Athenean model </li></ul><ul><li>Habermas - Public Sphere </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Historical analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rational discourse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet: create new ‘public spheres’ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>E-democracy experiments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tools for rational deliberation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Desire to increase participation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Networks, place-centred experiments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unconvincing except in a few cases. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>E-government: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consultation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Managerialism (efficiency, service delivery) </li></ul></ul>
  13. 15. Agre: Internet and the Political Process <ul><li>Appropriation perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Amplification model </li></ul><ul><li>Institutional and social network approaches </li></ul><ul><li>Approaches to Internet and Democracy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Online discussion fora </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unmediated political community </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intermediaries redundant/changed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information use of Internet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Voting Process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decentralised power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Global market decentralisation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Centralisation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social equality via anonymity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open/transparent information </li></ul></ul>
  14. 16. Institutions of politics (Agre) <ul><li>Rules, identities, roles, strategies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Legislators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Laws and Legal system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forms of Debate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>News Management (Spin) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organisation of interest groups </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Internet/Technology amplifies existing forces, institutions in short -medium term. </li></ul><ul><li>Intensify conflict </li></ul>
  15. 17. Agre 3 <ul><li>Reinforcement model - failure to produce change, just reinforcement of existing institutions - therefore conservative </li></ul><ul><li>Amplification model: Internet appropriated by many change elements. Amplification effects not only conservative. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Amplification of trends and emerging insitutions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stand alone projects not the way , need to understand ‘Digital Embedding’ </li></ul>
  16. 18. Agre 4 <ul><li>Need to reconceptualise the category of person by political and other institutions of society. </li></ul><ul><li>Internet mediated communities of interest anchored in institutional structures. </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced costs allow emergence of collective cognition. </li></ul><ul><li>No line between political and non-political communication. </li></ul><ul><li>But problem of being too connected - bad ideas can diffuse as quickly as good ones. </li></ul>
  17. 19. Agre 5 <ul><li>Effect of ‘Spacing’ : we are in institutional networks as well as individual ones </li></ul><ul><li>ICTs map and amplify those institutional spaces, make them clearer. </li></ul><ul><li>Political process based around individual voter - can be targeted though datamining </li></ul><ul><li>Everyone separated into individual human-data political subject by political intermediaries -> Political surveillance </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing number of intermediaries linked to individuals: private media and political spheres </li></ul>
  18. 20. Agre 6 <ul><li>Internet allows strengthening of established and new institutions and organisations </li></ul><ul><li>But strengthens “steady background hum of information sharing within communities of practice” </li></ul><ul><li>Not a straightforward relationship. </li></ul><ul><li>The stresses and tensions lead to social change. </li></ul>
  19. 21. Political Parties <ul><li>How do they use the Internet? </li></ul>
  20. 23. Old and New Media: Political Blog <ul><li>Media: set agendas, filter news. </li></ul><ul><li>Why Blogs have such high impact? </li></ul><ul><li>Very few popular political blogs </li></ul><ul><li>Low readership </li></ul><ul><li>Log distribution of links to blogs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A Few blogs concentrate, filter information from blogsphere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These blogs have credibility with established media </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Polarised </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information outside mainstream </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reading a political act by politically engaged </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Platform for political mobilisation </li></ul>
  21. 24. Bottom up participation <ul><li>Social capital and social network approach </li></ul><ul><li>Recreate public spheres </li></ul><ul><li>Problem or benefit of anonymity </li></ul><ul><li>What do people do in/with civic networks? </li></ul><ul><li>Existing political institutions don’t connect well with civic networking </li></ul><ul><li>Move to co-governance or network governance </li></ul><ul><li>Mob rule or better democracy? </li></ul>
  22. 25. Conclusions <ul><li>Few people politically active </li></ul><ul><li>Tools for engaging mass participation </li></ul><ul><li>Tools for coordinating distant like-minded people </li></ul><ul><li>Unforeseen emergent behaviour - faster than without technology due to network effect and ubiquitous use </li></ul><ul><li>Emerge from everyday civic engagement and communities of internet, facilitated by Internet use. </li></ul><ul><li>Existing governance structures not attuned to new ways of political communication and action. </li></ul><ul><li>Can the internet reinvigorate democracy or is it just reinforcement? </li></ul><ul><li>Change depends particular a society’s and culture’s ability to cope and adapt. </li></ul><ul><li>Internet too new - all to happen . </li></ul>
  23. 26. Next Week <ul><li>Surveillance and Privacy </li></ul><ul><li>Read recommended papers </li></ul><ul><li>Assignments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Read news reports on Info Commissioners report </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Think about Surveillance - what sorts are there </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Your own personal data: what is personal data? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Privacy and consent to use: what do you accept? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How you might be classified? </li></ul></ul>
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×