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Internet and Society: Internet Use And Digital Divide
Internet and Society: Internet Use And Digital Divide
Internet and Society: Internet Use And Digital Divide
Internet and Society: Internet Use And Digital Divide
Internet and Society: Internet Use And Digital Divide
Internet and Society: Internet Use And Digital Divide
Internet and Society: Internet Use And Digital Divide
Internet and Society: Internet Use And Digital Divide
Internet and Society: Internet Use And Digital Divide
Internet and Society: Internet Use And Digital Divide
Internet and Society: Internet Use And Digital Divide
Internet and Society: Internet Use And Digital Divide
Internet and Society: Internet Use And Digital Divide
Internet and Society: Internet Use And Digital Divide
Internet and Society: Internet Use And Digital Divide
Internet and Society: Internet Use And Digital Divide
Internet and Society: Internet Use And Digital Divide
Internet and Society: Internet Use And Digital Divide
Internet and Society: Internet Use And Digital Divide
Internet and Society: Internet Use And Digital Divide
Internet and Society: Internet Use And Digital Divide
Internet and Society: Internet Use And Digital Divide
Internet and Society: Internet Use And Digital Divide
Internet and Society: Internet Use And Digital Divide
Internet and Society: Internet Use And Digital Divide
Internet and Society: Internet Use And Digital Divide
Internet and Society: Internet Use And Digital Divide
Internet and Society: Internet Use And Digital Divide
Internet and Society: Internet Use And Digital Divide
Internet and Society: Internet Use And Digital Divide
Internet and Society: Internet Use And Digital Divide
Internet and Society: Internet Use And Digital Divide
Internet and Society: Internet Use And Digital Divide
Internet and Society: Internet Use And Digital Divide
Internet and Society: Internet Use And Digital Divide
Internet and Society: Internet Use And Digital Divide
Internet and Society: Internet Use And Digital Divide
Internet and Society: Internet Use And Digital Divide
Internet and Society: Internet Use And Digital Divide
Internet and Society: Internet Use And Digital Divide
Internet and Society: Internet Use And Digital Divide
Internet and Society: Internet Use And Digital Divide
Internet and Society: Internet Use And Digital Divide
Internet and Society: Internet Use And Digital Divide
Internet and Society: Internet Use And Digital Divide
Internet and Society: Internet Use And Digital Divide
Internet and Society: Internet Use And Digital Divide
Internet and Society: Internet Use And Digital Divide
Internet and Society: Internet Use And Digital Divide
Internet and Society: Internet Use And Digital Divide
Internet and Society: Internet Use And Digital Divide
Internet and Society: Internet Use And Digital Divide
Internet and Society: Internet Use And Digital Divide
Internet and Society: Internet Use And Digital Divide
Internet and Society: Internet Use And Digital Divide
Internet and Society: Internet Use And Digital Divide
Internet and Society: Internet Use And Digital Divide
Internet and Society: Internet Use And Digital Divide
Internet and Society: Internet Use And Digital Divide
Internet and Society: Internet Use And Digital Divide
Internet and Society: Internet Use And Digital Divide
Internet and Society: Internet Use And Digital Divide
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Internet and Society: Internet Use And Digital Divide

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Lecture Slides for Internet and Society course and the University of Edinburgh on Internet use and the digital Divide

Lecture Slides for Internet and Society course and the University of Edinburgh on Internet use and the digital Divide

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  • 1. Use of the Internet and the Digital Divide Internet and Society 2008 James Stewart, University of Edinburgh https://www.wiki.ed.ac.uk/display/IandS/
  • 2. Outline  Adoption and Appropriation  Non-use  Design for use  Who uses the Internet?  Statistics  Social Exclusion  Digital Divide  Policy  Global DD : Development, appropriation
  • 3. Issues and Ideas  Diffusion and the s-curve  Studying use and users  Appropriation and domestication  Non-users  Design-use issues.  Social Exclusion  Digital divide and social exclusion  International exclusion
  • 4. Diffusion and the S-curve Market penetration  Groups of users  Innovators, early adopters, etc  Demand-side: Network effects  Supply side: Economies of scale  S-curve limit  National differences  Gender differences  Generation of techs time
  • 5. Internet Penetration
  • 6. Adopter groups  Many studies suggesting different groups of adopters. E.g.  Enthusiasts - innovators  Pragmatists  Reluctant  Rejectors  Not a Binary division  What factors underline these types of categories?
  • 7. Example of analysis
  • 8. Adoption and Appropriation  How and why people adopt  Motivations and resources  Voluntary or obliged adoption   Why adopt and use innovations? (consumer research)  Functional: they do something practical  Experiental: they provide sensual pleasure  Identity: products provide expression of self identity  Social and individual context  Network effects
  • 9. Appropriation and Domestication  How technologies come into local settings  Learning  Formal, informal, learning by doing, community learning  Social processes  Local experts, local economy, power  User innovation  Limiting use, giving up use.  Proxy use
  • 10. Non-use of ICT  Why people don’t adopt  “Not relevant”,”no use”  “Too complicated”, “too fiddly”  Practical, experiential, identity factors  Physical / Cognitive barriers  Subjective reactions  No resources  No motivation  No community  Constrained agency  Resistors, Delayers and Rejectors  Need triggers to use  These come from other changes in life
  • 11. Theory and Design  Excluded by design  Feminist studies of technology design  Design for all  Keyboard, GUI, metaphors,  Excluded by policy  Use built from most engaging use  Social uses  Entertainment
  • 12. Social trends  Independent women  ICT families  Wealthy young-old  Consumer Society  Network society  Mega-Cities  Mobility in work - work rationalisation  Migrations (reduced costs)
  • 13. The case of the Internet  Use and non-use  Non-organisational  Sources  OII report/World Internet report  Ofcom  National Statistics  Scottish Statistics  Pew  Eurescom  MORI etc  Eurostat
  • 14. Use of internet  USA 76% of adults (Pew May 08) 24%  UK 67% (OxII 2007) 33% non-users
  • 15. European use (Eurostat 2007).  Eurostat 2006
  • 16. Household access (OxII)
  • 17. Non-ownership of all comms services
  • 18. Non users adopting less
  • 19. Intention to get internet at home
  • 20. Non use (OXII)
  • 21. Use/Adoption Factors  Correlates with:  Income  Age and Lifestage  Region  Professional activity  Education  Sex  Ability/Disability  Capital/Wealth  Family with children
  • 22. Age and Socio-economic Profile of home internet
  • 23. Income
  • 24. Education
  • 25. Involuntary non-use: income and disability
  • 26. Scottish Household Survey: Car availability
  • 27. Gender differences in driving skills (Scotland)
  • 28. Proxy Use Have some to ask
  • 29. For those who do have access…
  • 30. Time Spent online
  • 31. Where access internet (OxII)
  • 32. What do we do online?
  • 33. What do we do online?
  • 34. Communication
  • 35. Uses: Entertainment
  • 36. Ecommerce
  • 37. Viewing user-created video
  • 38. Participation  Posting to the Internet  OIS 2005
  • 39. Participation 2
  • 40. Use of SNS
  • 41. “Have you done   any of the following things on the Internet in the last year? – Created a profile on a social networking site such as YouTube, MySpace or Facebook?” OxII 2007  
  • 42. Multiple media use
  • 43. Don’t take my TV away!
  • 44. Don’t take away my Facebook (OxII 2007)
  • 45. quot;misuse of email at work' eDesigns 2002 quot;Top ten email ‘misuse’ by quot;Top ten email ‘misuse’ by womenquot; menquot; Flirting in the office 27% Planning social life with friends 32% Gossiping about staff 18% Contacting siblings 18% Forwarding pornographic URLs 13% Gossiping about staff 15% Contacting non-work friends 16% Flirting in the office 13% Organising social life 11% Forwarding pornographic URLs 7% Forwarding jokes to colleagues 5% Seek new employment 6% Seek new employment 4% Forwarding jokes to colleagues 4% Communicating with overseas 3% Transfer work to web based email 3% relations addresses Contact paren t s 2% Contact overseas relation s 1%
  • 46. Social Exclusion   Unequal but free agents with opportunity.   Dimensions  No access to work/labour market  Consumer  Identity  Community  Citizenship   Issues (e.g. Atkinson 1996)  Relative in society  Role of Agency  Dynamics  Individual, family or community   Excluded groups   Disabled, Ethic minorities, Religious groups,Women, Homeless   Not just ‘the poor’ or ‘working class’
  • 47. Inclusion and Exclusion via ICTs  Technical Fix for excluded groups  Work inclusion  Community - end isolation But  Can’t adopt, won’t adopt  No money, no skills, no interest, no trust  Result-> ‘Digital’ exclusion  Poor Jobs  Limited Gov services  Limited Information  Few Consumer benefits  Isolation from new culture  New excluded groups - older men
  • 48. Labour market exclusion:Women  Exclusion from best jobs  Creation of ‘the Internet’  Very low participation of women in engineering and IT professions, especially in ‘West’  But  High in Far East  Media starts to dominate, and female dominated professions  Women in the network society question
  • 49. Problems  Access  Resources (time, money, experience, social network)  Local exclusion  Literacy and Skills  Basic literacy  Information age literacy  Motivation  Social and individual issues  Life-stage  e.g. identity
  • 50. Policy  Social Policy  Unemployment  Social cohesion  Industrial Policy  skilled workforce  Consumer market
  • 51. Policy  Provide access  Provide skills (Euro comp driving licence)  Local experts - change agents  User friendly spaces - cybercafes, telecentres, computers in hairdressers  Free computers+ for whole communities  Liberalisation  Government-industry partnerships  Rely on ‘s-curve’  ‘Thin’ use.  Can remove barriers, but not create motivations
  • 52. E-inclusion=Social inclusion?  Claire Buré paper.  Subcultural appropriation  Can act as a bridge  Can reinforce subcultural and excluded life.
  • 53. Questions  Is the digital divide an important factor in social exclusion?  What policies can help promote adoption  Does technology adoption really lead to social inclusion?
  • 54. Global Digital Divide  Development agenda  Centre - periphery, North-South  ‘Development’ model  Black-holes: ‘silent zones’, 4th world  Irrelevance of the Internet  To expensive, no electricity, no skills etc  Better things to spend money on:  Health, water, food, roads,education  Problem of government control and corruption  But  Enabling technology  Leapfrogging
  • 55. Global Digital Divide 2  Donors  Education, telecentres, phone banks  Liberalisation  Foreign investment  Infrastructure - Mobile phones  New markets  Industry (outsourcing)  Indigenous economic development  Relevant Technology  Mobile phones  Payment systems  Stimulate local innovation
  • 56. Presentation  Telecommunications policy in SA  and mobile phones for development
  • 57. Problems and Benefits  Socio-cultural issues.  Trust  Local economy and cultural barriers  Economic divides  Elites  Still too expensive  Need for sustainability  Donor projects  Benefits  Bottom up use innovation  Social cohesion in migration  etc
  • 58. Never Catch up  Many interlocking issues.  Always new technologies  Increased commercialisation  Are the vanguard opening up the gap?  New Society?:  Global elites  Entertainment consumers  Subcultures  Excluded
  • 59. Next Week: Community and Identity  Reading:   Feenberg, A., Bakardjieva, M (reading pack)  Darin ch 4, Castells ch 5  Presentations:  Wellman quot;Neighboring in Netville: How the Internet Supports Community and Social Capital in a Wired Suburbquot;   MMPRPGs/Online worlds  Assignments:   Diary of whom and how you communicate.  Blog entry on importance of internet and mobile phone for your social and study life.  Or on your experience of online community

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