EC policy actions priorities inemployment,and the potential of online exchangesto support employability andemploymentJames...
2IPTS: Part of Joint ResearchCentre of the EC: 7 ResearchInstitutes across EuropeMission: “to provide customer-driven supp...
EU policy developments: employment,social inclusion and digital inclusionPolicy backgroundEuropean employment strategy (si...
Europe 2020 Strategytargets on Inclusive GrowthIncrease employment from 69 to 75% of population:Focus on youth, older work...
Europe 2020Strategy7 FlagshipinitiativesDigital Agenda for EuropeAn Agenda for New skills and JobsYouth on the MoveEuropea...
The big problem: Unemployment• Rising unemployment (euro area 12%; EU27 10.7% 26,3m04-2013) and long term unemployment (4....
EU Policy responses• Employment Pack, Towards a Job richrecovery (18.4.2012)• Social Investment Pack (20/2/2013)• Digital ...
1. Employment Pack: “Towards a job-rich recovery”1. Support Job creation and reallocation of labour(improve labour market ...
2. Social Investment PackagePublished 20/2/20135 “Integrated Pillars”Members State will (with EC support):• 1. Increase th...
Including (cfr 2.2, P11, MS to)Close the gender pay gap and address other barriers to women’sand other underrepresented wo...
3. Digital Agenda for EuropeMid Term review (went through CIS, still under discussion)Digital Inclusion -> Jobs and Skills...
IPTS research on ICTs, Social Inclusionand EmployabilityIn support of the Digital Agenda, 5 year programme of research on•...
ICTs and Future Work in the NetworkEconomy: the role of Internet-basedwork exchangesApril 15, 2013 13European Commission E...
Follow the hype….“Information Society”“Network Economy”“Web2.0”“Social Media”“ Wisdom of the Crowd”“Sharing economy”
Follow the hype….Crowdsourcing (Howe,2006)Software ->opensource projectsTexts and knowledge -> wikipedia, citizen journali...
CrowdsourcingAn on-demand, online, distributed problem-solving,financingand production modelcombining top-down (control)an...
1. Crowdsourced labourNew ways of finding work, finding workers,being employed and getting work doneMTurk, Microtask, Peop...
Non-monetarised workIncreasing interest in how unpaid work is a crucial elementin building and demonstrating employability...
Research QuestionsLittle documented evidence to answer these, fromcurrent range of services and practices, andfrom a user ...
Objectives1.Database of Practices (Short and long cases)2.State of the Art of practice3.Analyse impact on working lives4.C...
Research PartnersProject ‘Crowdemploy’Institute for employmentresearch, University ofWarwickDavid Boyle – timebanks, LETSa...
Research designand outputsLiterature ReviewState of Art Reports written byexpertsShort Case studies from interviewsand lit...
• Models of social innovation in employment markets• Access to work : match demand and supply – lessons for PES?• New jobs...
Some Issues for research and policy• Organisation of users/workers – representation?• Standardisation of work processes an...
Help!If you work in this areaplease let me know25April 15, 2013
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EC policy actions and priorities in employment, and the potential of online exchanges to support employability and employment

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Talk to COST research meeting in Darmstadt about the policy rational for work on ICTs and employment and the JRC-IPTS work on crowdfunding, crowdsourcing, online volunteering and timebanks and their implcations for employment and employability policy

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  • 1
  • Employment and Social Developments in Europe, 2012; Eurostat 2013; Eurofound Young people and 'NEETs’ 2013
  • Jeroen Blok image ©
  • Jeroen Blok image ©
  • http://www.billcasselman.com/unpublished_works/crowdsourcing.htm
  • EC policy actions and priorities in employment, and the potential of online exchanges to support employability and employment

    1. 1. EC policy actions priorities inemployment,and the potential of online exchangesto support employability andemploymentJames StewartJRC-IPTSSevillaJames.stewart@ec.europa.eu
    2. 2. 2IPTS: Part of Joint ResearchCentre of the EC: 7 ResearchInstitutes across EuropeMission: “to provide customer-driven support to the EUpolicy-making process bydeveloping science-basedresponses to policy challengesthat have both a socio-economic as well as ascientific/technologicaldimension”Joint Research Centre - Institute forProspective Technological StudiesIPTS tools for research:Participation in FP projects, Researchprocurement, Experts workshops,networking…
    3. 3. EU policy developments: employment,social inclusion and digital inclusionPolicy backgroundEuropean employment strategy (since 1997)• Open Method of Coordination• Advise, monitor and coordinateEurope 2020 Strategy (since 2009)• European institutions, the member states and the socialpartners• Smar,t sustainable, inclusive
    4. 4. Europe 2020 Strategytargets on Inclusive GrowthIncrease employment from 69 to 75% of population:Focus on youth, older workers and low skilled workers, and thebetter integration of migrantsImprove educational levels through:Reducing school drop-out rates below 10%Increasing the share of the population having completedtertiary education, at least 40% of 30-34 years oldPromote social inclusion through:Reducing poverty levels: at least 20 million fewer people in or atrisk of poverty and social exclusion
    5. 5. Europe 2020Strategy7 FlagshipinitiativesDigital Agenda for EuropeAn Agenda for New skills and JobsYouth on the MoveEuropean Platform against PovertyInnovation UnionResource efficient EuropeAn industrial policy forThe globalisation era
    6. 6. The big problem: Unemployment• Rising unemployment (euro area 12%; EU27 10.7% 26,3m04-2013) and long term unemployment (4.1% 2011)• Rising NEETs (14 mio in 2012, 48.1% unemployed rate)(Eurofound)• 23,4% or 116 mio of EU population is at risk of poverty orexclusion in 2010, up 2 mio from 2009, worsening in 2011• Women, children, youth and migrants are key vulnerablegroups• In-work poverty increasing: 1/3 of working age adults at riskof poverty are working in 2010NEED NEW IDEAS;
    7. 7. EU Policy responses• Employment Pack, Towards a Job richrecovery (18.4.2012)• Social Investment Pack (20/2/2013)• Digital Agenda, planned next steps7April 15, 2013
    8. 8. 1. Employment Pack: “Towards a job-rich recovery”1. Support Job creation and reallocation of labour(improve labour market situation of more vulnerable groups)• Encouraging labour demand• Modernisation of EURES and public PES• Microfinance and social entrepreneurs• Exploit the job creation potential of key sectors (green economy,health and social care, and ICT professional jobs)2. Restore the dynamics of the labour markets• Reform labour markets (Flexicurity)3. Investing in skills4. Towards a European labour market5. Enhance EU governance
    9. 9. 2. Social Investment PackagePublished 20/2/20135 “Integrated Pillars”Members State will (with EC support):• 1. Increase the sustainability and adequacy of budgets forsocial policies• 2. Pursue activating and enabling policies and provideadequate livelihoods• 3. Invest across the life course, starting with children andyouth• 4. Innovate and reform social policy based on evidence• 5. Streamline monitoring, governance and information
    10. 10. Including (cfr 2.2, P11, MS to)Close the gender pay gap and address other barriers to women’sand other underrepresented workers’ participation in thelabour market, including by encouraging employers to addressworkplace discrimination and offer reconciliation measures (suchas childcare services), adapted workplaces, including ICT-basedsolutions, eAccessibility, diversity management, programmes forup-skilling and training, for the recognition of skills andqualification as well as mobility
    11. 11. 3. Digital Agenda for EuropeMid Term review (went through CIS, still under discussion)Digital Inclusion -> Jobs and Skillshttp://daa.ec.europa.eu/group/12/contentOn addressing the skills gap:• Accelerate massive and constant up- and re-skilling• Mapping of skills needs for training design• EC: Grand Coalition on ICT and jobs to address the ICTskills gap (Kroes slide)On Social Media usage:• Stimulating innovative start-ups and SMEs that use socialmedia• Promote more collaborative public services
    12. 12. IPTS research on ICTs, Social Inclusionand EmployabilityIn support of the Digital Agenda, 5 year programme of research on• ICTs and migrants• ICTs and informal care for the elderly• ICT and youth• eInclusion Intermediaries• Digital Games and social inclusionShifting from work for DG CNECT to DG EMPL: mainstreaming2012 ICTs and Employability (2 reports, IER, Warwick)What is employability, and how are ICTs implicated in developmentand undermining employability?Pathways to and transitions in employment, specifically for groupsat risk groups?Role of social services, families, PES, local intermedairies,employers, central gov. policy?12
    13. 13. ICTs and Future Work in the NetworkEconomy: the role of Internet-basedwork exchangesApril 15, 2013 13European Commission Employment Package 2012 Key Action 8"Map new forms of employment…. Which make organisations moreagile and responsive to changes while boosting durableemployment retention and job creation".What does ‘Crowdsourcing’ mean forthe future of Employment andEmployability, and policy in theseareas?
    14. 14. Follow the hype….“Information Society”“Network Economy”“Web2.0”“Social Media”“ Wisdom of the Crowd”“Sharing economy”
    15. 15. Follow the hype….Crowdsourcing (Howe,2006)Software ->opensource projectsTexts and knowledge -> wikipedia, citizen journalismIdeas/knowledge - > ‘(open) innovation’ ‘crowd creativity’,Politics-> online campaigns, government, lawMoney - > Crowdfunding, peer to peer leaningMaking -> manufacturing marketsSharing’ ->peer2peer economy/ social solidarity‘Work’ -> microwork, elancing….., ‘distributed humanintelligence tasking’‘
    16. 16. CrowdsourcingAn on-demand, online, distributed problem-solving,financingand production modelcombining top-down (control)and bottom-up elements (voluntarism, ‘social’),with a software-based intermediarycoordinating tasks and facilitating a marketCrowd-sourcing <- Out-sourcing
    17. 17. 1. Crowdsourced labourNew ways of finding work, finding workers,being employed and getting work doneMTurk, Microtask, People per hour, TopCoder, elance, innocentivMillions of workers, micro, mini-contracts‘Free’, ‘Cheap’, ‘Flexible’2. CrowdfundingAccess to Capital and marketfor personal and community projectsleading to employment and/orincreasing employabilityEquity, donation, loans, rewardsIndiegogo Kickstarter, Mi Grano de ArenaMoney Economy
    18. 18. Non-monetarised workIncreasing interest in how unpaid work is a crucial elementin building and demonstrating employability3. ‘Virtual’ VolunteeringFind opportunitiesDoing voluntary work onlineOrganising voluntary workMicrovoluntarios, Help from home, Frivilligjob4. Reciprocal exchange: Timebanks andcomplementary currenciesIn Europe since the 1990sHigh growth in last 5 yearsFacilitated by the internet and computers.Timebanking UK, Fureai Kippu,LETS, timebanks.org
    19. 19. Research QuestionsLittle documented evidence to answer these, fromcurrent range of services and practices, andfrom a user perspective. We need more data1.How do new Internet-based systems based onexchange or donation of labour, or capitalprovision operate from both the user andoperator perspectives?2.What are the opportunities and challenges thateach of these types of service and practicepresent to policy?
    20. 20. Objectives1.Database of Practices (Short and long cases)2.State of the Art of practice3.Analyse impact on working lives4.Conclusions for future of employment, for policyand researchUnpack ‘ the crowd’
    21. 21. Research PartnersProject ‘Crowdemploy’Institute for employmentresearch, University ofWarwickDavid Boyle – timebanks, LETSand complementarycurrenciesJayne Cravens – virtualvolunteeringJavier Ramos - Crowdfnding2104/15/13
    22. 22. Research designand outputsLiterature ReviewState of Art Reports written byexpertsShort Case studies from interviewsand literatureLong Cases – In-depth qualitativeresearch on users and intermediariesOutputs:•Expert Reports•Workshop in Brussels in June•Special edition or Book•Policy Report Nov 2013
    23. 23. • Models of social innovation in employment markets• Access to work : match demand and supply – lessons for PES?• New jobs: On-demand and flexible offer and demand forindependent workers and SMES.• European/Global labour market: new network, flexibleeconomy organisation.• New ways of working/work: new skills requirements• New ways of learning skills and demonstrating them• Development and demonstration of skills through non-monetisedwork (voluntary and reciprocal)• Services that have most use in Transitions in working life.• Microfinance and mentoring• Support for Entrepreneurship and social entrepreneurship• Work to suit vulnerable citizens? Support reconciliation?• Social inclusion through unpaid work• Promotes social solidarityRelevance to policy :
    24. 24. Some Issues for research and policy• Organisation of users/workers – representation?• Standardisation of work processes and quality control.• Presentation of self• Trust and reputation• Exploitation and commodification of workers• Undermining existing employment• Low quality work• More exclusionary for vulnerable people:• New barriers to work• Outsourcing to non-EC countries v. development potential• Abuse and gaming of systems• Arbitrary and uncontrolled lock out of workers and requesters• Regulatory difficulties and challenges : finance, labour law.• Political discourses and acceptability of these types of work24April 15, 2013
    25. 25. Help!If you work in this areaplease let me know25April 15, 2013

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