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Kahn mentoring for success3 2009

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  • 1. Mentoring for Success Mentoring for a purpose James Kahn MD Professor of Medicine, AIDS Program, SFGH UCSF-GIVI CFAR Mentoring Program Director www.cfar.ucsf.edu
  • 2. Conclusions
    • Mentoring depends upon
      • The Mentee
      • The Mentor
      • The Environment
    • Who should you mentor?
    • Mentoring requires experience
    • Mentoring is teachable
    • Mentoring is important and satisfying
    • Mentoring is dependent upon the mentees as much as the mentor.
  • 3. Mentoring
    • Avoid Manipulation
    • Identify problems before they reach you.
    • Help with differentiation
    • Understand how to achieve life and work balance.
    • Keep perspective—
    • Even when things look like they are going down the drain.
  • 4. Mentoring Background
    • Mentoring is not consistently recognized.
    • Faculty have little time even with the needed inclination
    • Mentoring is not uniform
    • Identifying good mentoring is difficult
    • Increasing mentoring skills for faculty is not consistently supported.
  • 5. Analog Scale for Mentoring
  • 6. It Takes a Village
    • It is important to understand that there are different roles for mentors. It takes a variety of mentors to provide support and direction to mentee.
  • 7. Defining the mentor
    • Scholarly or Research Mentor
    • Co-Mentor
    • Career Mentor
    • Advisor
  • 8. Scholarly or Research Mentor
    • Responsible for developing the creative and/or independent research careers of their mentees. The scholarly mentor must have expertise in the mentee’s area of scholarship and help provide resources to support the mentees work. Scheduled meetings take place 1-2 times per month.
  • 9. Co-Mentor
    • Works with the mentee and scholarly mentor to provide specialized content area or methodological expertise. Scheduled meetings every 1-3 months.
  • 10. Career Mentor
    • The career mentor is responsible for overall career guidance and support for their mentee. Often affiliated with a Faculty Mentoring Program, the career mentor should not serve as the scholarly mentor. Scheduled meetings take place at least 2-3 times per year.
    • This type of relationship has been the focus of our mentoring program.
  • 11. Advisor
    • More limited role than a mentor. Provides guidance on an as-needed basis generally around a specific issue. No expectation for ongoing contact.
  • 12. Who should you mentor? Struggling- - Target individuals who are at risk for “failure” or falling off the radar Undeclared-- Representative of most early career investigators Stars - Individuals with proven ability and record of success A focused approach. Effort could be disproportionately provided to persons under-represented in medical research. High impact. Provides services to self-selected group. Good setting for peer-to-peer interactions due to varied experience and achievement. High success rate likely. A less intensive targeted approach may be adequate. Participation may become highly coveted as an indicator of “star” status. Participation maybe perceived as stigmatizing. Overall success rate may be low. Methods not proven. Requires a tailored approach and flexible mentors. Could duplicate some institutional efforts. Impact will vary with participant. May be “preaching to the choir” with little impact on outcome. Unlikely to contribute to expansion of diversity in the investigator pool. May duplicates efforts since stars are prioritized.
  • 13. Mentors’ Responsibilities
    • Is clear about expectations
    • Sets specific goals and accomplishments
    • Encourages strategic thinking
    • Provides networking opportunities
    • Gives moral support
    • Results orientated
    • Conducts meetings on a one‑to-one basis
    • Keeps in touch
    • Makes sure to provide written communication
    • Puts some “skin in the game”
  • 14. Mentees’ Responsibilities
    • Contacts the mentor
    • Provides directed communications
    • Explicitly requests for help
    • Open and willing to trust
    • Appreciates the mentor’s effort
    • Respects the mentor
    • Puts some “skin in game”
  • 15. What part of the mentoring relationship falls onto the mentees?
    • Develop the plan for the year
    • Communicate the plan
    • Anticipate problems and communicate them
    • Communicate the purpose for wanting mentoring—What do you want out of the relationship?
    • Bottom line don’t be Passive!
  • 16. What might a Mentoring Plan Include?
    • 1.    DEVELOPMENT AREA:  What specifically is your need?  Why do you have this need now?  How will you benefit?
    • 2.    EXPECTED OUTCOMES:  What do you expect to do this year?  How will you know if this mentoring relationship help you accomplish your outcomes? 
    • 3.    ACTIONS:  How will you gain the experience you are looking for to help you be successful? 
    •  
    • 4.    CHALLENGES, DEPENDENCIES AND SUPPORT:  What challenges or obstacles must you address?  
    • 5.    PROGRESS REVIEW:  What progress has been made on your project?  What have you learned so far? 
    •  
    • 6.    ACTIONS TO TAKE FORWARD
  • 17. Mentoring for a purpose
    • Know what the structure is for mentoring.
    • Example: CFAR Mentoring Program
  • 18. UCSF-GIVI CFAR Venn Diagram To nurture and sustain innovative multidisciplinary HIV research at the intersections of the basic, clinical, and population based scientific disciplines . Clinical Science Population Science Basic Science
  • 19. UCSF-GIVI CFAR Mentoring Program
    • Facilitate the successful growth and development of the next generation of HIV investigators to support and extend multidisciplinary HIV research.
    • 1) One-on-one interactions between mentees and senior CFAR mentors;
    • 2) A workshop series offering important information of a range of topics essential for academic career development
    • 3) Enhanced opportunities for networking
  • 20. The Trans Model of Mentoring
  • 21. CFAR Workshops in 2007-8
    • Working Productively with the Office of Sponsored Research
    • First NIH Grants
    • Careers Promotion and Advancement
    • Lessons Learned: How to avoid being road kill on the academic highway
    • Life and Work Balance
    • International HIV Research: A primer
  • 22. Indicate the mentoring areas you would benefit from the most
  • 23. Indicate the assistance you received from the mentoring program
  • 24. CFAR Mentors
    • Developing sufficient mentors for CFAR programs may be a future challenge
      • Mentors are leaving
      • Mentors are not participating
      • Some mentors receive great praise, others less so.
      • We have to recruit and train the next generation of mentors for CFAR or face some risk regarding effective mentoring
    • 2008-2009 we would focus on MENTORS
    • Workshops for Mentors-case based
    • Voluntary 360 degree review
  • 25. Mentoring the Mentors Mentors’ workshops 2008-9
    • Motivating & coaching your research team
    • Dealing with interpersonal conflict in your group
    • Creating a professional research group and a culture of excellence
    • Role and expectations of a mentor
    • Understanding scientific fraud and misconduct
    • Voluntary 360 degree review
    Objective: To discuss the responsibilities of a mentor. What should be the value gained from this experience for both the mentor and those being mentored. Examples from best and worst case mentoring situations. How to wean a mentee from both a style and project basis Objective: To understand individual differences, cultural diversity and techniques for assisting others to reach their potential. Objective: To provide participants with basic fundamental team-related conflict- management concepts and techniques. To help them better engage in difficult conversations and gain confidence in mediating interpersonal issues Objective: To provide participants with techniques for making effective hiring decisions, clarifying and communicating expectations; and instilling accountability for work ethics, procedures, results and behavior. Behavior-based interviewing techniques will be shared to address the three multiple interfaces for lab success. A performance management model will also be discussed. Prepare a plan of action and a response consistent with UCSF and GIVI policies and understand the need for a formal process.
  • 26. What did I learn?
    • There is a strong need for mentoring
    • Mentees and mentors are motivated for a one on one program and especially value networking
    • Symposia have value to the mentees
    • Mentors as a group are like herding cats– problematic with the many campus sites of the enterprise
    • This takes considerable support and funding.
      • Without a K24 award it could not have happened
      • Requires administrative support
  • 27. Mentoring Background-CTSI
    • Critical component of career development & success
    • Outstanding mentors: insures pipeline
    • Success of C & T research enterprise: robust mentors
    • Dedicated, skilled mentors: need training
    • Few training programs
    • UCSF CTSI Mentor Development Program
    • http://ctsi.ucsf.edu
  • 28. MDP Overview
    • Primary goal: Train mid-career & early senior researchers
    • UCSF Faculty Mentoring Program
    • Co-Directors from each school: Dentistry, Medicine (2), Nursing, Pharmacy
    • Curriculum development: 6 months
    • 10 case-based seminars, 2 per half day
    • 5 monthly morning meetings
  • 29. Senior Mentor Comments Be supportive & challenging Beware of mentors who eat their young You need to date a little before you get married
  • 30. Three Ethical Mentoring Issues
    • What are the boundaries of what can be discussed?
    • To what extent should the mentor attempt to direct the learner towards a particular action or decision?
    • In a conflict of interests between mentor and learner where should the mentor’s priorities lie?
  • 31. Three keys to mentoring
    • Desire...drive, energy, enthusiasm, motivation.
    • Opportunity…time, space, support.
    • Competence…ability, skills, know how.
  • 32. Mentor can
    • Provide different perspective;
    • Help to identify the real issues (research plan related) and stumbling blocks that hinder the individual’s or the team’s progress;
    • Help to learn problem solving process;
    • Stimulate your growth and give feedback.
  • 33. But….. It is up to you to come up with solutions!!!
  • 34. Effective communication: Identifying the goals “ Would you tell me, please, which way I ought to go from here?” “ That depends a good deal on where you want to get to.”
  • 35. Effective communication: Before a meeting
    • Be prepared;
    • Formulate concise questions;
    • Provide your mentor in advance with any information/documentation to be discussed;
    • Agree on the meetings’ schedule.
  • 36. “ There is nothing we receive with so much reluctance as advice” Joseph Addison
    • Do not jump to conclusion
    • Do not be ‘selective’
    • in your perception
    • Do not be negative
    • Be mindful
    • Check for understanding
    • Recap conversation
    Effective communication for mentoring
  • 37. What drives a mentor?
    • A sense that they are helping someone achieve their goals and that they are making a difference in another person's life.
    • An occasional "thank you" or acknowledgement of the assistance they are providing.
    • An enjoyable relationship.
  • 38. Invite a mentor’s interest
    • Know what you need and want from the relationship.
    • Have clearly-defined objectives.
    • Identify problems you believe might be obstacles to you in reaching your objectives.
    • Give thought to and be able to articulate how you think a mentor could assist you.
    • Think about how you might reach your objectives with or without a mentor.
    • Be purposeful and pleasant, and have challenging goals.
    • Treat your mentor relationship with care; don't abuse it by asking for inappropriate favors or information, and don't take your mentor for granted.
  • 39. Determine your needs
    • Review your last performance evaluation; were there areas in which your supervisor felt you needed more development and expertise?
    • Read job descriptions or want-ads for positions you aspire to hold in the next three to five years. What skills do you have already? What skills/experiences do you need to develop to be qualified for these positions?
    • List three basic needs that you have in your current position (e.g., less stress, more responsibility, more challenge, more respect).
    • Think about what you currently enjoy in your current situation (job or otherwise)? What's missing?
  • 40. Skills for Successful Mentees
    • Ask Questions
    • Utilize your best Listening Skills
      • Listen for central ideas.
      • Determine what is of personal value to you in your mentor's conversation.
      • Stay focused--speed of thought vs. speed of speech.
    • Build Trust
    • Resolve Differences
  • 41. Managing a successful relationship
    • Behaviors
      • Taking initiative and risks.
      • Accepting each other.
      • Agreeing upon and working toward specific goals.
      • Deal effectively with unmet expectations or objectives.
    • Factors
      • Mutual respect.; acceptance and flexibility; honesty and direct communication; Preparation; Commitment; Trust.
    • Get Off to a Good Start: be prepared
    • Reciprocating the Relationship--What Do You Have to Offer?
  • 42. Ending the Relationship
    • Be clear about why you want to end the relationship. If you've achieved your goals - celebrate! Let you mentor know how they have helped you, and show your appreciation.
    • If you're ending the relationship for other reasons, let your mentor know what the reason is. Perhaps the relationship is not moving you forward and you'd like to spend time engaging in other professional development activities.
    • Regardless of the reason why you'd like to end the relationship, it's important to give your mentor clear feedback about what they might do differently and what they did well.
    • Mentors frequently become collaborators …always appreciate that the future is unknown and will bring about a surprise.
  • 43. Successes of CFAR mentees*
    • Xavier Contreras – CFAR Basic Science Award
    • Judy Hahn – CFAR Pilot Award
    • Judy Hahn—CFAR Fogarty Award
    • Satish Pillai—K01 Award
    • Tors Neilands—R25 Award
    • Hong Ha-Truong—R01
    • Stephen Dominy—Licensed technology from UCSF to AdPharma ( http://www.ad-pharma.com/pipeline.asp )
    • Twelve K23, K01 or RO1s among prior mentees
    • Four mentors with K24 awards from 3 different institutes
    • Experience was critical for the CTSI Mentoring Project
    • *2007-8
  • 44. Be an agent of change
    • If you want to make incremental improvements be competitive .
    • If you want to make exponential improvements be cooperative .
  • 45. Academic success— What does your boss expect of you?
    • Help make the place better!
    • Role model behavior
      • Add value
      • Build a portfolio of skills / accomplishments
    • Quality performance –bring value
    • Breadth of excellence
    • Generosity – mentoring, leadership, volunteerism
    • Become self-supporting, then a tax-payer
    DOM FACULTY ORIENTATION
  • 46. What is Needed ? (What is your role?) Grants + clinical revenue Clinician-investigators Tax + clinical revenue Teacher-clinicians Tax dollars Educational leaders Clinical revenue Clinician-teachers Sources of funding Roles
  • 47. Evaluation of Faculty
    • Criteria
      • research and other creative activities
      • professional competence
      • university and public service
      • teaching
    • Weighting of Criteria
      • series-dependent
      • department-defined
  • 48. Research Productivity
    • Impact
    • Original Peer Reviewed Publications
    • Other Refereed Dissemination
    • Research support---NIH, VA, national peer-reviewed grants
    • Thematic Focus or Progression
  • 49. Faculty Independence
    • Authorship
      • first author
      • senior author
      • “ co-investigator” responsibilities
    • Principal Investigator
      • competitive research award
    • Letters of Evaluation
  • 50. Assessment of Teaching
    • Teaching activities
    • Teaching evaluations
    • Mentoring activities
  • 51. University and Public Service
    • Administration
      • departmental committees
      • interdepartmental activities
      • search committees
    • University Service
      • academic senate committees
      • system-wide activities
    • Professional Service
      • editorial board
      • professional society leadership
    • Community, Public Service
  • 52. Research and Funding
    • Identify your own niche-early!
      • (preferably, one that is unoccupied)
    • Differentiate yourself from your mentor
    • Publish your results consistently
    • Obtain your own research funding
      • (preferably competitive, nationally-recognized and portable)
  • 53. Scientific misconduct
    • Whether these complaints are substantiated or not, the process is difficult for all involved.
      • Time consuming
      • Anxiety provoking
      • Strains relationships
      • Requires third party investigation
      • Tends to extend beyond initial issues
    • Often involves mentees
      • As witnesses
      • Initiating complaints/responding to complaints
  • 54. Misconduct
    • Often arise after an extended period of dispute or strain
    • Often results from poor communication among the parties
    • Can result from misunderstanding on the part of mentees concerning:
      • Their own autonomy
      • Conventions of authorship
      • Conventions regarding credit and intellectual property
    • Often arise when best practices in mentoring conduct are not followed
    • Can extend to involve multiple mentees and employees
  • 55. Trans Mentoring
    • Should be a great aid in avoiding misconduct episodes and complaints.
    • The trans mentor:
      • Is in a position to identify early warning signs of trouble;
      • Can dispel erroneous assumptions regarding mentee autonomy and rights
      • Can aid mentees in developing effective communication even with difficult senior collaborators
      • Can identify significant problems early in process
      • Can help mentees to appropriately cope with complaints and grievances
  • 56. When disputes occur
    • Mentees should avoid involving lab bystanders in casual conversation and gossip about these issues
      • Seek appropriate advice
      • Need to address issues with senior mentor
      • Involving bystanders can complicate situation and harden positions
    • Also give context
      • Some disputes in scientific collaborations are common and usually are resolved with good communication
      • The great majority of PIs are reasonable and ethical, actual misconduct is not common
  • 57. Workplace conduct issues
    • Expression of anger can cross lines of acceptable conduct
      • Shouting, singling individuals out, pointing can be violations of the UC code of conduct on the part of mentor or mentee
      • Cursing, threatening or seeking to identify the origin of complaints is also unacceptable behavior
    • Mentors should assist mentees in getting appropriate help but NOT investigate
      • Problem resolution center
      • Academic affairs office
  • 58. Vulnerable Settings
    • Hot findings
    • New initiatives
      • Especially when mentee has greatest experience.
    • Disengaged PI
    • Language/cultural differences within lab or between mentor and mentee
    • When problems have occurred in past
    • When family members are collaborators
    • New PIs
  • 59. Suspicion of Research Misconduct
    • Plagiarism, falsification, fabrication
      • Not authorship disputes
    • Report to immediately, do NOT try to resolve or even mention suspicion
    • Sequestration of lab books, computer, etc
    • Assessment
    • Inquiry by administrator
    • Investigation by ad hoc committee
    • Imposition of discipline
    • Report to other agencies
  • 60. Mentoring should lead to change
        • It is not the strongest of the species that survive, nor the most intelligent, but the one most responsive to change
        • ---Charles Darwin
  • 61. Conclusions
    • Mentoring depends upon
      • The Mentee
      • The Mentor
      • The Environment
    • Who should you mentor?
    • Mentoring requires experience
    • Mentoring is teachable
    • Mentoring is important and satisfying
    • Mentoring is dependent upon the mentees as much as the mentor.
  • 62. Acknowledgment
    • 1. CFAR Mentoring Co-Director, Ruth Greenblatt
    • 2. The Mentees based throughout our research enterprise.
    • 3. The Mentors participating in the program
    • 5. Paul Volberding, Warner Greene.
    • 6. ARI and John Greenspan for providing support.
  • 63. Case Example A
    • A complaint of research misconduct is received from a postdoctoral fellow concerning inappropriate use of research grant funds
      • Funding from Project A was used to support Project B and to support PI travel that was not necessary for the research
    • Background
      • Postdoctoral fellow had been long frustrated by lack of support for his own research projects, and was looking for job with fewer publications than he had hoped for, disputes had also occurred regarding who the corresponding author on the papers should be;
      • PI felt that the postdoc had done well, productivity had been hampered by technical issues, and was unaware of the extent of postdoc’s concern
      • Postdoc also felt that PI had not been as supportive in job search as he could have been, and enrolled other lab staff in effort to review budgets and expenditures.
    • Outcome
      • Postdoctoral fellow is granted whistle blower status, but eventually decided that academics was too difficult a work environment for him.
      • PI was forced to return funding for Project A using his entire unrestricted funding to cover the costs, resulting in cessation of other projects and support for several graduate students.
  • 64. CFAR mentors role- Case A
    • Could anything have been done to achieve a better result, and if so what and when?
      • Communication about the career plan and productivity
      • Communication about the job search
  • 65. Case Example B
    • An early career faculty member submitted a complaint that his prior mentor (PI) committed research misconduct and workplace misconduct:
      • One grievant complained that the mentor had used material he published previously (without the PIs name as author), word-for-word and without the grievant’s consent (he was listed as coauthor).
      • A graduate student in the same laboratory supported this complaint and noted that the PI raised his voice, used derogatory language and pointed his finger at her in the workplace.
  • 66. Example B Background
    • Other students and faculty who know PI were said to report this kind of misconduct happens all the time.
    • The faculty member had previously been required to take supervisory and anger management training.
    • The work that was reported in both papers was completed in the PI’s laboratory using grant funding that he obtained, but he was less involved in leading this work, which was an offshoot of the original project, than was his routine practice.
    • The PI reported that he was not aware the grievant had submitted this paper, and that he was simply completing what he had thought was an unfinished manuscript.
  • 67. Case B Outcome
    • The PI was forced to retract his publication.
    • The PI was found to have violated the UCSF code of conduct.
    • Since the dispute became public within the department, the grievants also were perceived by some to have transgressed appropriate conduct and to have acted to falsely tarnish the reputation of the PI and his contributions to the research.
  • 68. Case B Continued
    • The issues were discussed widely within the laboratory when the PI was away, and the entire research team became embroiled.
    • The grievants shared comments made by academic leaders and other faculty with the research group.
    • The grievants obtained copies of correspondence that indicated that the PI was aware of the first publication, including collection of material from deleted computer files.
  • 69. CFAR mentors role- Case B
    • Could anything have been done to achieve a better result, and if so what and when?
      • The paper
      • Discretion about the complaint