Food Security - ArcticNet Eastern Arctic Regional Science Meeting
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Food Security - ArcticNet Eastern Arctic Regional Science Meeting Food Security - ArcticNet Eastern Arctic Regional Science Meeting Presentation Transcript

  • Food SecurityJames Ford & Sara StathamArcticNet Eastern Arctic Regional Science MeetingIqaluit, NunavutNovember 6, 2012
  • Outline• Chapter team• Draft chapter overview• Why is this issue a concern?• Who/what does this issue affect?• What do we know/need to know?• Examples of “research to action”• Next steps
  • Chapter team James Ford Sara Statham Laurie Chan• Lead author • Lead author • Contributing author• McGill University • McGill University • University of Ottawa• Professor • Researcher • Professor• Department of • Department of • Department of Biology Geography Geography• Food security and • Environmental and • Environmental toxicology climate change socioeconomic and contaminants determinants of food security• Also invited: Brian Laird, Marlene Evans, Gary Stern, Michael Power, Lisa Loseto
  • Draft chapter overview1. Defining food security2. Importance of food security to health3. Food security in Canada4. Food insecurity in the Eastern Arctic5. Research to date6. The Inuit food system7. The “nutrition transition”8. Determinants of food security9. What is being done to address food insecurity10. Future research needs
  • 1. Defining food security• “Food security exists when all people at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe, and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life.” Food and Agriculture Organization, United Nations (2003) Endorsed by the Government of Canada
  • 1. Defining food security Availability Sufficient quantities available consistently Accessibility Use Food Sufficient resources Sufficient knowledge to prepare food Security to obtain food Quality Sufficient nutritional and cultural value Food Security World Health Organization (2007)
  • 2. Importance of food security• Food security and health are closely linked – Food insecure = compromised health status• There are many health impacts of food insecurity – Physical – Psychological – Social
  • 3. Food security in Canada• UN Special Rapporteur visited Canada in May 2012• Wanted to examine the way in which the Right to Food is being realized in Canada• “Canada has long been seen as a land of plenty,” yet “rates of food insecurity are unacceptable” Olivier De Shutter• Particularly concerned for the severe food insecurity faced by aboriginal peoples
  • 4. Food security in the Eastern Arctic • 70% of preschoolers live in food insecure homes • 69% of adults have a very high prevalence of food insecurity – 6x higher than Canadian average – Highest rate for any Aboriginal population in a developed country • Women, children, and the elderly are most vulnerable
  • 5. Research to date Food Security Contaminants•Anthropology •Dietetics Prevalence •Various•Ethnography •Toxicology •Surveys •Various •Case studies•Country foods •Laboratory studies •Country foods & •Questionnaires •Country foods (& market foods market foods) •Country foods •Country foods (& market foods) Nutrition Food Security Food Sharing Transition Determinants
  • 6. The Inuit food system Country food Store foodProduction Locally obtained from natural sources Distally obtained from industrial sources (i.e. small-scale hunting, harvesting, (i.e. large-scale factories, facilities, fishing, foraging) cultivating, irrigating) Labour-intensive Capital-intensiveProcessing Locally by hand Distally by machine (i.e. skinning, cleaning, preparing) (i.e. slaughtering, grinding, packaging)Distribution Small sharing networks (traditionally) Large transportation networks Cash transactions between individual and Cash transactions between individual and hunter/harvester (increasingly common) storePreparation Often communally Often individuallyConsumption Often communally Often individuallyTimes of reliance Economic stress Environmental stress
  • 7. The “nutrition transition”• Nutrient-rich country foods • Nutrient-poor store foods
  • 8. Determinants of food insecurity • Availability Country Food Store Food Environmental • Altered migration patterns of • Inclement weather causing flight wildlife delays • Varied distribution of wildlife • Changing sea ice dynamics • Seasonal disparity in wildlife causing sea-lift delays Socioeconomic • Growing populations putting • Stores ordering enough supply to localized pressure on wildlife meet demand • Lack of hunter in the • Lack of worker in the household household • Presence of community food programs (i.e. food bank, soup kitchen) • Presence of government food programs (i.e. Breakfast Programs)
  • 8. Determinants of food insecurity • Accessibility Country Food Store Food Environmental • Shorter sea ice season preventing • Isolation of communities hunters from using the sea ice • Heavy reliance on external • Longer open water season transportation networks allowing hunters to boat • Extreme weather events • Unpredictable weather patterns preventing people from • More frequent storms leaving their homes • Stronger and more variable winds causing white-out conditions Socioeconomic • Level of traditional knowledge • High cost of food required to hunt/harvest wildlife • Insufficient financial resources • Time needed to hunt/harvest required to purchase food • High cost of hunting (i.e. • Inappropriate and insensitive equipment, gas) policies/regulations • Weakening of sharing networks • Weak social networks • Gambling/substance • Gambling/substance abuse/addiction abuse/addiction
  • 8. Determinants of food insecurity • Quality Country Food Store Food Environmental • Contaminants affecting health of • Flight delays causing spoilage wildlife • Freeze-thaw cycles preventing animals from adequately foraging Socioeconomic • Traditional knowledge required • Nutritional knowledge required to harvest the healthiest animals to make healthy food choices • Language barriers (i.e. English food labels hinder unilingual Inuit)
  • 8. Determinants of food insecurity • Use Country Food Store Food Environmental • Changing environmental • N/A conditions leading to spoilage (i.e. caching) Socioeconomic • Traditional knowledge required • Cooking skills required to prepare to prepare wildlife groceries • Language barriers (i.e. English recipes hinder unilingual Inuit)
  • 9. What is being done• Massive public mobilization• “Feeding My Family” Facebook group• Food price protests• Grassroots initiatives
  • 9. What is being done• Nunavut Food Security Coalition – Seven Government of Nunavut departments – Four Inuit organizations – Broader group of partners, academics, experts, and the public 2012 2013 Sept Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun NFSC monthly meetings as per interim ToR New NFSC ToR Thematic discussions Symposium Public engagement Academic and expert advising Process evaluation Strategy Implementation Plan Evaluation Framework
  • 10. Future research needs• Intervention studies• Holistic research• Improved geographic distribution of case studies• Future forecasts• Adaptation research• Focus on vulnerable sub-groups
  • Why is this issue a concern?• Multi-faced problem with multiple ramifications Traditional Diet and Values Environmental Cultural Contaminants Transition Climate Factors Demographics Change Affecting Food Security in Nunavut Geographic Social Isolation Challenges Financial Poverty Illiteracy Achieving Sustainable Food Security in Nunavut GN DHSS (2012)
  • Who/what does this issue affect?• Those who are food insecure (some more than others)• But also those who are not
  • What do we know/need to know? What We Know What We Need to Know • Determinants affecting • Determinants affecting “quality” “availability” and “accessibility” and “use” • Aspects of country food • Aspects of market food • Country food networks are • What are the implications of changing these changes? • Climate change is impacting • What are the ramifications of wildlife these impacts? • Programs and initiatives are • What are the outcomes of being undertaken these programs and initiatives? • Etc. • Etc.
  • Examples of “research to action”
  • Next Steps• Further exploring the questions asked by IRIS-2 organizers• Identifying more examples of “research to action”• Incorporating feedback from today
  • Thank You sara.statham@mail.mcgill.ca