Be able to identify cell structures and organelles on a diagram. Be able to state the function of cell structures and organelles. Know which organelles and structures are specific to prokaryotes, animal and plant cells.
Outer layer which helps a cell adhere to surfaces, or be slippery to avoid antibodies. Found in prokaryotes. Review: What is an example of a prokaryote?
Is a rigid layer surrounding plant, fungi and prokaryotes. It protects cell contents, and imparts rigidity to the plant, fungi, etc.Are plants prokaryotic, or eukaryotic?
Separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment. It is the gate keeper, it controls what comes into and goes out of a cell. Also referred to as a phospholipid bilayer, or the fluid mosaic model. Found in prokaryotes, plants, and animals.Are lipids hydrophobic, or hydrophilic? What does this mean?
Gel-like substance residing between the cell membrane holding all the cells internal sub- structures. Found in prokaryotes, plants, and animals.
Sites where cells produce proteins at the direction of DNA. Are not bound by a membrane. Are made in the nucleolus out of RNA and protein. May be free in cytoplasm, or bound to the Endoplasmic Reticulum (plants and animals) Are found in prokaryotes, plants, and animals.
The genetic material of prokaryotic organisms. Found only in prokaryotes
Hair like structure used for attaching to solid surfaces, and in the transfer of DNA from one cell to another (bacteria during reproduction). Also used for cell mobility. Found in prokaryotes.
Movement in external medium. ◦ Works similar to a propeller on a boat. Found in prokaryotes and animal cells.
Non-membrane bound area which contains genetic material in prokaryotes. Only in prokaryotic cells.
Is a flattened stack of tubular membranes. Sorting, packaging, processing, and modification of proteins. Can be thought of as the post office of the cell. It packages proteins into sacs called vesicles, and makes sure they get to where they belong. Found in plant and animal cells.
Membrane bound organelles which contain digestive enzymes. The enzyme are contained to protect the rest of the cell. Breakdown of large molecules (e.g., proteins and polysaccharides). Removal worn out parts, food particles, viruses and bacteria. Found in plant and animal cells. Review: What kind of macromolecule is an enzyme?
Anchor for cytoskeleton. Helps in cell division by forming spindle fibers. Found in plant, and animal cells.
Golgi Body Lysosomes Centriole Endoplasmic Reticulum
Site of cellular chemical reactions. Arranged in a series of highly folded membranes. • Folds in membranes increase surface area, which provides more room for chemical reactions to take place. Found in plant and animal cells. Smooth E.R. Rough E.R. ◦ No ribosomes attached ◦ Has ribosomes attached ◦ Production and storage of ◦ Creates proteins for use lipids inside the cell, and to be sent out of the cell for various jobs. Review: What are the functions of lipids? What is a protein made of?
Golgi Body Lysosomes Centriole Endoplasmic Reticulum Nucleolus
Located within the nucleus. It is the site of ribosome production. Found in plant and animal cells.
Golgi Body Lysosomes Centriole Endoplasmic Reticulum Nucleolus Cytoplasm*
Golgi Body Lysosomes Centriole Endoplasmic Reticulum NucleolusRibosomes* Cytoplasm
Control center of the cell. Place where DNA is stored and maintained. DNA is the directions for making proteins. Site of RNA transcription (for making proteins, and duplicating DNA) Contains the nucleolus, which is where ribosomes are made. Found in plant and animal cells.Review: What macromolecule makes up DNA?
Is the power plant of the cell. Transforms energy from the breaking down of glucose into ATP (adenosine triphosphate) which is used for energy by other organelles. Have and outer membrane, and an inner membrane with a lot of folds called cristae. The folds increase the surface area for the storage of more energy- storing molecules. Cells which require more energy have more mitochondria in them. ◦ For example: Muscle cells have more mitochondria than skin cells because they require more energy. Found in plant and animal cells. Review: What type of macromolecule is glucose?
Nuclear pores allow the transport of water- soluble molecules across the nuclear envelope. RNA and ribosomes move from nucleus to the cytoplasm. Proteins (DNA), carbohydrates and lipids move into the nucleus. Found in plants and animals.
Materials packaged at the Golgi apparatus are transported in vesicles. Storage, transportation, helps maintain homeostasis by moving packaged materials to the cell surface for release out of the cell. Found in plants and animals.
Membrane bound compartment for temporary storage – food, enzymes, waste, etc. Small in animal cells. Very large in plant cells where they store water for the plant.
Vesicles Lysosomes Nucleus Endoplasmic Reticulum Cytoplasm Nucleolus Golgi Body Nuclear Membrane RibosomesMitochondria VacuoleCell Membrane All of the organelles pictured are present in animal Cells as well, and have been discussed already.
Site of photosynthesis – using sunlight to produce energy. Contains the pigment chlorophyll, which traps light and give leaves their green color. Found mainly in plants, and some protists (mostly unicellular eukaryotes).
In plants the cell wall is made up of cellulose. It helps provide structure and rigidity for the plant. It protects the cells. Found in plants and prokaryotes.
Cillia: hair like structures around a cell to provide motion. In prokaryotes, plants, and animals. Cytoskeleton: interior scaffolding, plays important roles in both intracellular transport and cellular division. Found in prokaryotes, plants and animals. Thylakoid: Responsible for photosynthesis in protists, and are found inside chloroplasts. They are made of stacks of discs called grana.
Remember…All cells have a cell membrane.Prokaryotes have no membrane bound organelles.Prokaryote DNA is not in a nucleus, and eukaryotic DNA is.Plant cells have chloroplasts, large central vacuoles, and a cell wall; animal cells do not.