Chapter 9 music in the cathedralPresentation Transcript
CHAPTER 9 MUSIC IN THE CATHEDRAL, CLOSE, AND UNIVERSITY:
• The thirteenth century witnessed the advent of polyphony – not tied exclusively to the church.• In Paris, polyphony spreads from the confines of the cathedral and the liturgy to the close.• The close was a residential precinct next to the church.
Medieval Close• Next to almost any cathedral was situated an urban enclosure called a close.• Primarily a gated community for men employed in the cathedral.• Territory free from control of the king – very much like a township.• Closes eventually start to dwindle (due to various scandals) – become replaced by Universitas.
Île de la CitéThe Île de la Cité (an islandin the middle of the SeineRiver) and the close of NotreDame of Paris as theyappear in the earliest map ofParis.The area of the close is tothe north (left) of thecathedral.
Universitas• In 1215, pope gives formal recognition to Universitas.• Universitas are a unified collection of schools and colleges under a single administrative head called a chancellor.• Since Latin was the universally known language among students, this area became known as the Latin Quarter.• Students were primarily males between 14-20 years of age – women were educated in the home or convent.• Learning was mainly by oral tradition or repetition as books were limited.
Phillip the Chancellor• The most famous chancellor in the thirteenth century was Philip of Nemours – called Philip the Chancellor (c1160-1236).• Some seventy musical settings with religious or moralistic texts are attributed to Philip – most of these belong to the genre of medieval music called conductus.
CONDUCTUS• The term “conductus” derives from the Latin infinitive ducere (to lead).• As the name suggests, the conductus was sung as the clergy moved from place to place – or were engaged in some other type of kinetic activity, such as dance.
• Conducti appear as: - processional pieces - as insertions into liturgical dramas - as accompaniments to dances - as songs to celebrate Easter and Christmas [much as Christmas carols do today].• Conducti for one, two, three, or occasionally even four voices survive.• Unlike organum and the later motet, all voices of a conductus are newly composed - even the tenor.• Conducti usually are serious and moralistic in tone, but some can also be joyous or humorous.
Orientis partibus (Song of the Ass• Orientis partibus is a semi-humorous conductus associated with the Feast of Fools – a day coming soon after Christmas when the lower (and generally younger) clergy took over the service of the church. [parody of the liturgy of Christmas]• The ass in Orientis partibus is the humble beast that carried Mary and the Christ child to Bethlehem.• A legacy of this melody (the lowest voice) and text survives today in the Christmas carol, The Friendly Beast.
Features of Orientis partibus• The text setting is syllabic and parts sing text simultaneously.• Text is metrical and strophic – ending with a refrain at end of each verse.• Humorous – but yet still full of sacred illusions to the scripture.• Conducti are first type of polyphonic music where the composer has free reign to create all the voices.
Dic, Christi veritas• Philip the Chancellor’s conductus Dic, Christi veritas (Speak Christian Truth) is longer, more serious, and even vindictive in tone.• In it Philip delivers a blistering sermon railing against those (including the pope) who seek to curtail his authority at the University.• His is a highly learned text that makes frequent illusion to ancient and biblical history.• The music is periodically punctuated by caudae (“tail”) – a long melisma on a single syllable.
Features of Dic, Christi veritas• Rhetorical in nature – text and music work together for maximum effect (early signs of word painting in Medieval music).• This conductus could stand musically alone outside the church – serves as a sermon and lecture in music.
Motet• The motet first appeared in Paris around 1200.• Originally the term (deriving from the French mot meaning “word”) signaled a discant clausula to which sacred and eventually vernacular words had been added.• By the fifteenth century the motet had come to connote almost any vocal work setting a sacred Latin text.• The purpose of the added words (mots) was to expand upon the religious theme presented in the tenor voice (a Gregorian chant).• Sometimes the vernacular texts of the upper voices were very worldly – but even the most profane text could be interpreted as a spiritual message by means of an allegorical reading.• This is music now religious and vernacular – but not for the masses – only for a very select group of educated
Examples 9-2A, 9-2B and 9-2C demonstrate how firstLatin and then French texts were added successivelyto the upper voices of what was originally a two-voicediscant clausula.
Parisian Motet• Eventually the motet spread beyond the cathedral, close, and university to the streets of Paris – becomes urban popular music.• Even the sacred tenor (which up to now had been a portion of a Gregorian chant) – might be replaced by a secular tune.• The three-voice motet On parole de batre/A Paris/Frese nouvele extols the pleasures of urban living in medieval Paris – here the tenor is a street cry of the sort a fruit vendor used to advertise his produce.
The late thirteenth-century Parisian motet Onparole de batre/A Paris/Frese nouvele in which all voices are in French.