Transcript of "Chapter 82 live processes, minimalism, metric modulations "
Chapter 82Music in the 1960s and 1970s: Live Processes,Minimalism, Metric Modulations
Music in the 1960’s & 1970’s• The 1960’s and early 1970’s were a transitional period in the history of music , during which – composers continued to explore and search for new styles – looked for ways that modern music could communicate and regain the interest of audiences .• The song-like compositions in Luciano Berio and George Crumb are examples of this thinking . – Both composers rely on sound per se to enhance the poetry that they set music to . – Crumb adds additional expressive techniques • such as quotations from pre-existing music .
The Life of Luciano Berio (1925–2003)• 1925 - born in Oneglia, Italy• 1948-51 - attends the Conservatory in Milan• 1951 - studies with Luigi Dallapiccola at Tanglewood• 1954-59 - attends summer courses in Darmstadt• 1955 - directs the electronic music studio at the Milan Radio• 1963 - moves to the United States, teaches at Mills College• 1972 - returns to Italy, travels and conducts• 2003 - dies in Rome
Principal Compositions by Luciano Berio• Operas include: – Opera – La vera storia – Un re in ascolto• Orchestra: works include the series of Chemins (reworkings of other compositions)• Chorus: works include Sinfonia and Coro• Solo voice and vocal ensembles : works include – Circles – Recital I – Cries of London• Solo instrument: series of Sequenzas• Tape: works include Thema (Omaggio a Joyce) and Visage
The Life of George Crumb (b. 1929)• 1929 - born in Charleston, West Virginia• 1956-59 - doctoral study in music at the University of Michigan with Ross Lee Finney• 1965 - appointed to the faculty of the University of Pennsylvania• 1968 - wins the Pulitzer Prize
Principal Compositions by George Crumb• Voice and instruments : works include – Madrigals (4 books) – Ancient Voices of Children• Ensemble pieces include Black Angels• Piano: works include Makrokosmos (2 books)
George Crumb, Ancient Voices of Children , 1970, “¿De dónde vienes?”Circular form
The Life of Elliott Carter (b. 1908)• 1908 - born in New York City• 1926–32 - attends Harvard University• 1932–35 - studies in Paris with Nadia Boulanger• 1935 - settles in New York• 1960 - awarded the first of two Pulitzer Prizes
Characteristic’s of Elliot Carter’s Music• Elliot Carter’s music of the 1950’s and 1960’s was unrelentingly complex – multiple and changeable tempos – complex counterpoint of lines• The composer intended these features to create a wordless drama in his instrumental music.• In the 1970’s he simplified his music’s texture and returned to a more traditional model of song composition.
Principal Compositions by Elliott Carter• Orchestra: works include concertos (piano, oboe, violin, clarinet, cello) and – Symphony of Three Orchestras – Concerto for Orchestra• Solo Voice: works include – A Mirror on Which to Dwell – Syringa – In Sleep, in Thunder• Chamber music : includes string quartets (5), brass quintet, woodwind quintet
Elliott Carter, String Quartet No. 2, Introduction and movement 1Free form
Minimalism• Minimalism is a style that uses a minimum of materials that are spun out by repetition with gradual change .• This music from the mid-1960’s was composed by a group of American composers including : – La Monte Young – Terry Riley – Philip Glass – Steve Reich• This is seen in the music of Steve Reich as the result of a “phasing” process – by which an ostinato begun in unison by two or more sources of sound gradually moves out of synchrony – producing a changing series of secondary rhythmic patterns
The Life of Steve Reich (b. 1936)• 1936 - born in New York• 1953-63 - study at Cornell University, Juilliard, and Mills College• 1969 - records with Steve Reich and Musicians• 1970 - studies drumming in Africa
Principal Compositions by Steve Reich• Ensemble pieces include: – Violin Phase – Drumming – Clapping Music – Music for 18 Musicians – Nagoya Marimbas – City Life – Vermont Counterpoint• Mixed media works – The Cave – Three Tales
Steve Reich, “Clapping Music,” 1972Symmetric (phase) form
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