1. Chapter 68New Music in ParisAfter World War I:Stravinsky and The Six
2. Paris at the End of War I - Neoclassicism• Parisian musical culture quickly returns to life following the end of World War I (1918) – a new spirit emerges throughout the artistic world.• simplicity• directness• construction• objectivity• Replace older Romantic notions of: – a warm string sound – a large colorful orchestra – a programmatic agenda – overt displays of emotion
3. • French critics found this new musical spirit embodied in a return to styles and forms of the Classical and Baroque periods, terming this new musical taste as Neoclassicism .• Igor Stravinsky was the leading figure of this movement as a Russian émigré. – his Octet (1923) is an example of the leaner, clearer style of Neoclassicism.
4. Regaining Control: Paintings by Piet Mondrian Before and After World War I• Before (“The Winkel Mill in Sunlight,” 1908): – representational painting of a subject drawn from nature – expressive in the strident colors – freedom of form beneath turbulent brush strokes• After (“Vertical Composition with Blue and White,” 1936): – abstract painting, not representational – cool, objective tone – controlled in organization , geometrical
5. Igor Stravinsky, Octet, 1923, movement 1 (“Sinfonia”)Free sonata form Itunes.lnk
6. Darius Milhaud & The Six (The French Six)• A group of younger native-born French composers called “The Six” shared in Stravinsky’s Neoclassical style.• “The Six” (Les six): – Darius Milhaud – Georges Auric – Francis Poulenc – Germaine Tailleferre – Louis Durey – Arthur Honegger• Darius Milhaud was one of their most adventurous members who brought: – popular music into his original compositions. – experimented with new harmonic ideas (including polytonality [differing keys exist simultaneously in a composition]).
7. The Life of Darius Milhaud (1892–1974)• 1892 - born in Aix-en-Provence in the South of France.• 1909 - enters the Paris Conservatory to study violin .• 1912 - drops out of Conservatory and becomes freelance composer in Paris.• 1916 - sojourn in Rio de Janeiro as secretary to French embassy to Brazil.• 1922 - visits New York and hears jazz in Harlem .• 1920s and 1930s - composes and travels.• 1940 - emigrates to America, teaches at Mills College in Oakland, CA.• 1947 - teaches at Paris Conservatory in addition to Mills .• 1974 - dies in Geneva, Switzerland
8. Principal Compositions by Darius Milhaud• Operas and Ballets : 32 works, including: – La création du monde (ballet) – Christophe Colomb (opera)• Orchestra: symphonies (11), chamber symphonies, concertos, and many character pieces.• Chamber music : includes sonatas for various instrumental combinations and 18 string quartets.• Piano: character piece and sonatas
9. Darius Milhaud, Saudades do Brazil , 1920, “Botafogo”Rounded Binary form
10. Darius Milhaud, Saudades do Brazil , 1920, “Botafogo”Rounded Binary form