Chapter 57Nationalism and Virtuosity: Franz Liszt
Nationalism• By the middle of the 19th century, new consciousness of national identity began to appear in many parts of the world.• The birth of nationalism (love for and allegiance to one’s country) occurred in Europe in the aftermath of Napoleon’s imperialism .• Growing nationalistic sentiments made an important mark on music as composers began collecting and arranging folk songs of their native lands .• These materials were often implemented into their own compositions.
The Life of Franz Liszt (1811– 1886)• 1811 - born in Raiding south of Vienna (in Hungary).• 1821 - moves with family to Vienna to advance his budding career as piano prodigy.• 1823 - European tour as piano prodigy, settles in Paris.• 1839 - non-stop touring of European cities – invents the concept of the solo recital and the concept of playing a recital from memory .• 1848 - retires from touring, orchestral conductor in Weimar .• 1861 - lives near Rome.• 1869 - alternates residences in Rome, Weimar, and Budapest• 1886 - dies in Bayreuth .
Principal Compositions by Franz Liszt• Piano: works include – etudes – cycles of character pieces including: • Harmonies poétiques et religieuses • Années de pèlerinage (three books) • Consolations • Légendes • Hungarian Rhapsodies – arrangements: opera excerpts, symphonic music, songs• Orchestra: symphonic poems (13), program symphonies (Faust, Dante), marches, arrangements• Chorus: Masses, motets, requiems, oratorios (including The Legend of St. Elizabeth and Christus)• Songs• Arrangements
New German School• Liszt develops a friendship with Wagner upon hearing his operas.• Formed the New German School and used the slogan “music of the future .” – this group believed in more free and not so accurate interpretations of classic works.• The rival and more conservative group to this movement was led by Mendelssohn and included such members as Johannes Brahms. – this group strictly adhered to the scores of Bach, Mozart, or Beethoven.
Symphonic Poem• As an orchestral composer, Liszt concentrated on the one- movement programmatic piece which resembled an overture, but instead he called a “symphonic poem.” – these poems emphasized their affinity with the art of poetry.• The program usually suggests a certain mood or feeling and runs parallel to the spirit of the music.• Are much longer pieces• very highly original in form• tend to use freer versions of standard forms .• Use of transformation of themes throughout the work – this theme transforms in character and detail throughout. – many times the themes are also cyclical as well. – this similar technique had been used prior by Schubert and
Franz Liszt, Hungarian Rhapsody No. 15 ( Rákócczy March ), 1853Rounded Binary form
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