Beethoven’s WorldBeethoven was born in 1770the city of Bonn, on the RhineRiver, in the northwest corner ofwhat is now Germany.From the age of 21, he livedin Vienna, the capital ofAustria and seat of governmentof the far-flung lands ruled bythe Hapsburg kings.At this time, the German-speaking states of Europe weremembers of a loose alliancecalled the Holy RomanEmpire, whose emperor wasthe Hapsburg king.The most powerful Germanstate was Prussia, in thenortheast part of Europe.
Beethoven’s Life (1770-1827)• 1770 born in Bonn• 1792 moves to Vienna and studies with Haydn• 1792–1802 first compositional period• 1802 despair over deafness, Heiligenstadt Testament• 1802-c1814 second compositional period• c1814–1827 third compositional period• 1827 death in Vienna
Beethoven’s Principal Compositions• Orchestra: 9 symphonies, overtures, concertos (including 5 for piano and 1 for violin)• Chamber music: 16 string quartets, 7 trios, sonatas for instruments and piano• Piano: 32 sonatas, variations• Opera and ballet: Fidelio (opera), Creatures of Prometheus (ballet)• Chorus: 2 masses, oratorio Christ on the Mount of Olives, finale of Symphony No. 9
The Youthful BeethovenBeethoven’s appearancemade an impression onvirtually all who met him.He was very short, andan acquaintance from hisyouth remembered his“broad shoulders,short neck, largehead, round nose,and dark browncomplexion.”The French composerLuigi Cherubini comparedhim to an “unlickedbear cub.”
Beethoven’s Principal Music of his First Period of Composition (1792–1802)• Piano Sonatas: Nos. 1–20• Symphonies: Nos. 1–2• Piano Concertos: Nos. 1–2• String Quartets: Nos. 1–6 (Op. 18)• Violin Sonatas: Nos. 1–5• Trios (violin-cello-piano): Nos. 1–4
Beethoven, Piano Sonata in C Minor ( Pathétique ), 1798, movement 1Sonata form
Beethoven, Piano Concerto No. 1 in C Major, 1795, movement 3Sonata-rondo form