1. CHAPTER 46Joseph Haydn:Late Symphoniesand Vocal Music
2. • In 1779 Haydn signed a new contractwith Nikolaus Esterházy which freed thecomposer from his prior obligationto compose solely for the prince .• Consequently, he began to sell hismusic to publishers in major Europeancities.• Alongside handsome fees, his growingfame brought him remunerativecommissions.
3. The Paris SymphoniesThis set of six symphonies by Haydn (Nos. 82-87)was commissioned in 1785 by the amateurorchestra of the Loge Olympique, a Freemasonsociety in Paris .Perhaps because this Parisian ensemble wasthree times the size that of the Esterházysorchestra, the Paris Symphonies are characterizedby dramatic orchestral effects , such as starkcontrasts in dynamics and textures .
4. The Paris Symphonies were to be performed in a largepublic concert hall rather than a private salon .This may account for the folksy, uncomplicated nature ofmany of the themes.
5. The 12 London Symphonies (Nos. 93-104)• In 1791, the year following the death of his long-time patron Nikolaus Esterházy, Haydn was engaged to compose a set of 12 symphonies, now called the London Symphonies, to be performed in London . He did so between the years 1791 and 1795. Thanks to his activities in London, Haydn achieved financial security for life.• "Surprise" Symphony (No. 94): one of Haydns most popular London Symphonies, it was premiered in 1792. Both the name and fame of the symphony come from its second movement, designed—according to Haydn himself—"to surprise the public" or even “shock the sleepers.”
6. Vocal Music• Haydn had first studied the music and liturgy of the Catholic Church as a choirboy at the Cathedral of St. Stephen during the 1740s.• Like Mozart and Beethoven, he turned to sacred music late in his life.• Masses: In 1795, Haydn was commissioned to compose a new polyphonic Mass every year for Maria Esterházy, wife of the prince. – the six Masses that resulted are large-scale works requiring full orchestra and chorus with soloists.• Oratorios: inspired by the performances of Handels oratorios in London, Haydn wrote two oratorios, The Creation and The Seasons .
7. The CreationComposed between 1796 and 1798, this oratorio recounts the story ofthe creation of the world as told in the Book of Genesis . Each of thethree parts of The Creation ends with a rousing chorus, in which themultitudes proclaim the glory of God.
8. Because of his declining health, Haydns productivity diminishedand finally ended in 1803 . Haydn died in 1809, little over a yearafter his farewell concert in which Antonio Salieri conducted TheCreation.