Chapter 24 music in three german cities Presentation Transcript
CHAPTER 24MUSIC IN THREE GERMAN CITIES: Innsbruck, Augsburg, & Munich THE PROTESTANT- CATHOLIC CONFRONTATION
During the late Middle Ages andRenaissance, German-speakinglands belonged to a looseconfederation of two hundredprincipalities and city-states calledthe Holy Roman Empire .It included members of the RomanCatholic faith and, after the adventof Protestantism, the Lutheran andCalvinist faiths as well.
EMPEROR MAXIMILIAN I• During the early years of the sixteenth century the spirit of the Renaissance belatedly arrived in German speaking lands during the rule of Emperor Maximilian I (1459-1519).• Maximilian effectively governed disparate lands that extended from the English Channel to Hungary, and he was a great patron of music.
Emperor Maximilian I stands in the music room of hiscourt surrounded by musicians and musical instrumentsThis woodcut by Hans Burgkmair the Elder was executed in about 1514.
INNSBRUCH, AUSTRIA• The beautiful Alpine city of Innsbruch, along with Augsburg and Vienna, served as one of three centers of government from which Emperor Maximilian governed his far-flung lands.• At Innsbruch Maximilian installed his Hofkapelle (German for “court chapel”).• To Innsbruch Maximilian lured the illustrious composer Heinrich Isaac (1450-1517) in 1496.
HEINRICH ISAAC AND THE TENORLIED• Heinrich Isaac’s frequent travels to and from Innsbruch apparently caused him to set in polyphony the beautiful tune Innsbruch, ich muss dich lassen (Innsbruck, I must now leave you).• A popular or art song in German is simply called a Lied.• Indeed he did so twice, once as a Tenorlied (a polyphonic song with a pre-existing tune in the tenor) and then again with the beloved tune in the cantus.
The beginning of Heinrich Isaac’s setting of Innsbruch, ich muss dichlassen with the tune in the tenor thereby forming a Tenorlied.
The beginning of Heinrich Isaac’s setting of Innsbruch, ich muss dichlassen with the tune in the cantus.
PAUL HOFHAIMER• Also based in Innsbruck with the imperial court was organist Paul Hofhaimer (1459-1537).• His arrangement of the antiphon Salve, Regina for organ makes use of alternatim technique – the verses of the text are alternately assigned to the organ to play polyphonically and then to voices to chant monophonically.
The beginning of Paul Hofhaimer’s setting of the antiphon Salve,Regina with the chant set as a cantus firmus in the range of the tenorvoice.
MUSIC IN AUGSBURG• Situated two hundred miles to the north of Innsbruch, Austria, is Augsburg, Germany, a city- state that became predominantly Protestant.• It was here that the Diet (or Reichstag; the imperial legislature) often met, and for this reason Emperor Maximilian I was frequently in residence in Augsburg.
Emperor Maximilian I hears Mass in his chapel at Augsburg around 1518In the center right,Maximilian kneels inprayer.In the lower right, thesingers of theHofkappelle groupbefore a large musicmanuscript.And to the left seatedat the organ, isimperial court organistPaul Hofhaimer.
THE PROTESTANT REFORMATION IN AUGSBURG• The Protestant Reformation was led by Martin Luther (1483-1546).• On October 31, 1517, Luther nailed his Ninety- five Theses (objections to current church practices) to the door of the castle church in Wittenberg, Germany.
LUTHER OBJECTED TO THE FOLLOWING ASPECTS OF CATHOLICISM• The selling of indulgences - a forgiveness of sin sold by the church with the promise that the buyer, and members of his family, might thereby spend less time in Purgatory after death.• The selling of church services (such as last rites and funeral services).• The selling of church offices to the highest bidder.• The excessive veneration of saints, which was seen as idolatry.• The growth of religious holidays, especially saints’ days, on which commercial activity could not take place.• The use of writings other than the Bible (medieval legends of the saints, for example) as sources of religious truth.• The insistence that leaders of the church remain celibate (unmarried).• The existence of monks and nuns and thus monasteries and convents.
HOW LUTHER CHANGED THE LITURGY OF THE CATHOLIC CHURCH TO MAKE IT DISTINCTLY LUTHERAN• The Mass and the canonical hours were reduced to just the Mass and an evening service.• The vernacular language was allowed to replace Latin within the service.• The congregation, and not just the trained choir, was expected to sing during the service.• The Gloria of the Mass was omitted.• Simple hymns replaced several parts of the Proper of the Mass.• Sermons were regularly preached at both Mass and the evening service.
THE CHORALE TUNE• To provide a body of melodies to serve the worship of the new Protestant church, Martin Luther instituted the chorale – a monophonic spiritual melody – religious folksong – what many Christian denominations today would call a “hymn.”• Luther derived chorales from three sources: – 1) his own musical invention. – 2) from popular tunes, substituting religious words for the previously secular text. – 3) from existing Gregorian chants, substituting German texts for the older Latin ones.• Transforming a secular tune into sacred one (or vice versa) is called making a contrafactum (pl. contrafacta).
Martin Luther’s newly composed chorale Ein festeBurg ist unser Gott (A Mighty Fortress is Our God)
THE TEXT OF LUTHER’S EIN FESTE BURG IST UNSER GOTTEin feste Burg ist unser Gott A A mighty fortress is our GodEin gute Wehr und Waffen. A bulwark never failing.Er hilft uns frei aus aller Not A Our helper he amid the floodDie uns jetzt hat betroffen. Our mortal ills prevailing.Der alte böse Feind B For still our ancient foeMit Ernst er’s jetzt meint, Does seek to work us woe,Gross Macht und viel List His craft and power are greatSein grausam Rüstig ist, And armed with cruel hate,Auf Erd’ ist nicht seins Gleichen On earth is not his equal.
JOHANN WALTER’S GEISTLICH GESANGBÜCHLEIN• To spread the new music among the Protestants, Luther encouraged his colleague Johann Walter (1496-1570) to publish a hymnal with chorale tunes set in polyphony.• In 1524 Walter issued his Geistliche Gesangbüchlein (Little Book of Spiritual Songs) – a collection of thirty-eight Protestant hymns and five Latin motets • to which other hymn settings were added in subsequent editions.
MUSIC AT THE COURT OF MUNICH• Innsbruck remained steadfastly Catholic.• Augsburg became a stronghold of Lutheranism.• Munich found itself somewhere in the middle – both in terms of religion and geography.• In the 1560s the leader of the Munich court chapel, Ludwig Daser, was a Protestant.• Its foremost composer, Orlande de Lassus, was a Catholic.• The leader of the court, Duke Albrecht V, vacillated between the two religions, ultimately siding with the Catholics.
ORLANDE DE LASSUS• Orlande de Lassus (1532-1594) was the most famous composer of the sixteenth century – certainly more of his works were published in Europe than those of any other musician.• Lassus was born in the Low Countries south of Brussels and in 1558 was recruited to serve in the chapel of Duke Albrecht of Bavaria – where he remained until his death.• Lassus wrote over 2,000 works of every current genre – including more than 1,000 motets.
The banquet hall built by Duke Albrecht V of BavariaLassus is seated at theharpsichord and behindand around him are theinstrumentalists of the courtand the chapel singers.
LASSUS’S PENITENTIAL PSALMS• The Penitential Psalms were seven particular remorseful psalms that had been thought of as a unit for more than a thousand years in Lassus’s day.• Yet Lassus was the first composer in the history of music to set all seven of the Penitential Psalms as a group.
LASSUS’S DE PROFUNDIS• In the sixth of the seven Penitential Palms (Psalm 129) the anguished soul cries out to the Lord from its depths: – De profundis clamavi ad te Domine: Domine, exaudi vocem meam (From the depths I cried to you, O Lord: Lord, hear my voice).• Each of the ten verses of this psalm receives its own polyphonic setting – but they are unified because all make use of a single psalm tone.
The beginning of Lassus’s Penitential Psalm 129 (De profundis ) with the psalm tone in the tenor voiceNotice the bass line as it falls to the depths of that voice and thenrises back up.
The soprano and bass parts of Lassus’s De profundis in a sumptuous manuscript produced for the Munich court about 1560The illustrationsaccompanying the musicdepict events in the lives ofthe heroes of the Christianbiblical history.Lassus’s esoteric musicpreserved in this manuscriptwas kept as the privatepreserve of Duke Albrecht.Members of the Munich courtcalled it musica reservata ,text-sensitive music reservedfor a small circle ofconnoisseurs.
THE GENEVA PSALTER• Some extreme branches of Protestantism banned all music from the church.• Protestant reformer John Calvin (1509-1564), founder of what is still called Calvinism – allowed music in the sanctuary, but limited it exclusively to psalm singing.• Calvin published what is called The Geneva Psalter (1539 and revised 1551) – named after the city in which the Frenchman Calvin had taken refuge.• It contains a translation into rhyming French verse of all 150 psalms.• Many of the psalms were supplied with simple melodies that might serve several different psalms.
A French psalm tune composedby Louis Bourgeois (c1510-c1560)
When the Geneva Psalter was translated two decades later intoEnglish to serve those of the Puritan faith, Louis Bourgeois’s melodywas used to accompany Psalm 100 and it is still known to the English-speaking world as “Old Hundreth” (All people that on earth do dwell).