Chapter 22 music in renaissance parisPresentation Transcript
CHAPTER 22 MUSIC INRENAISSANCE PARIS
THE RENAISSANCE IN PARIS• During the Black Death (1349-1350) and the Hundred Years’ War (1337- 1453) the fortunes of France, and Paris in particular, declined.• Paris regained its former glory during the reign of King Francis I (r. 1515-1547), who almost single-handedly brought the Italian Renaissance to France.• Among the accomplishments of Francis I were: – The importation of Italian artists such as Leonardo da Vinci into France. – The establishment of a college for the study of classical literature in both Latin and ancient Greek (Collège de France). – The importation of Italian instrumentalists to play at his court. – The recognition of the importance of a new invention--music printing.
King Francis Ias painted by Jean Clouet about 1525
MUSIC PRINTING IN PARIS• During the 1520s Pierre Attaingnant (c1494- c1532) developed a relatively inexpensive method by which to print music – called single-impression printing.
A copy of the soprano part of a Mass by JeanMouton printed by Pierre Attaingnant in 1532 The wavy lines are created by the many small pieces of movable type being fitted together.
A French printing shop about the year 1530 On the right, proof- readers check the text for errors.
THE PARISIAN CHANSON• Beginning in 1528 Pierre Attaingnant issued nearly a hundred collections of popular polyphonic songs - usually for four voice parts.• Each voice was set in its own book called a part book.• The chanson Attaingnant published usually had a light, lively style - in which the rhythms of the text determined the rhythms of the music.• This type of chanson of the 1520s, 1530s, and 1540s has come to be called the Parisian chanson.
A tapestry from Bourges, France, depicting foursingers performing a chanson from part books
CLAUDIN DE SERMISY• Claudin de Sermisy (c1490-1562) was the master of the Parisian chanson.• Although primarily a church musician, he still managed to publish 169 very worldly, secular chansons.• The most popular of these was his four-voice Tant que vivray (As Long as I Live) – which possesses snappy musical rhythms inspired by the accents of the poem.• An alluring melody and bouncy rhythms explain why Tant que vivrary was reprinted in England, Italy, the Netherlands, and Spain – appeared in many different instrumental arrangements.
The beginning of Claudin de Sermisy’s Parisian chanson Tant que vivray first printed by Pierre Attaingnant in 1528
INSTRUMENTAL ARRANGEMENTS• So popular was Claudin’s Tant que vivray that it soon appeared in instrumental arrangements for - solo keyboard - lute - lute and voice - three lutes• The four-voice version could also be played by a four- part instrumental ensemble.• A version of a chanson, Mass, or motet arranged for solo lute is called a lute intabulation, in part because it is written in lute tablature.• Pierre Attaingnant issued Tant que vivray in lute tablature in 1529.
LUTE TABLATURE• The beginning of Tant que vivray written in lute tablature (below) with a modern transcription (above).• As often happens in lute transcriptions – the alto line of the original chanson has been removed – notes of long duration are broken up into quickly moving lines of figural ornamentation (here eighth notes).
ARRANGEMENT FOR VOICE AND LUTE• The beginning of Claudin’s Tant que vivray arranged for voice and lute as published by Pierre Attaingnant in 1529.• Here the solo soprano voice takes the over the original soprano line of the song.• The lute plays a slightly ornamented arrangement of the bottom three voices.
ARRANGEMENT FOR KEYBOARD• In 1531 Attaingnant issued a collection of twenty- one chansons arranged for keyboard solo – one of the first printed collections of keyboard music.• Here again the ever-popular Tant que vivray appeared now with more abundant ornamentation applied to chordal skeleton of the original chanson.
The beginning of Pierre Attaingnant’s arrangement of Tant que vivray for keyboard solo
OTHER INSTRUMENTAL ARRANGEMENTSA four-voice Parisian chanson might be performed by many differentcombinations of instrumentals. In this painting, showing Paris as itwas about 1540, a flautist plays the upper voice of a chanson while alutenist plays an intabulation of the lower voices.
DANCE MUSIC• In 1529 Pierre Attangnant commenced to publish dance music for four-part instrumental ensemble.• The most numerous dances issued by Attaingnant were the pavane and the galliard.• The pavane is a slow, gliding dance in duple meter performed by couples holding hands.• The pavane gradually replaced the 15th century basse danse as the slow dance of the court.• The steps of the dance came in units of four – the lines of the music, consequently, tended to span four- bar phrases.
The beginning of a four-part instrumental pavane published by Pierre Attaingnant in Paris in 1547
THE GALLIARD• The pavane was usually followed by the galliard – a fast leaping dance in triple meter.• The basic unit of this dance and its music involves six beats and six steps in 6/4 time.
The beginning of a four-part instrumental galliard published by Pierre Attaingnant in Paris in 1547 Note the hemiola in bar 4.
A painting believed toshow queen Elizabeth Idancing the volta, anathletic dance closelyrelated to the galliard.