Chapter 2   antiquity to the middle ages
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Chapter 2 antiquity to the middle ages






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Chapter 2 antiquity to the middle ages Presentation Transcript

  • 1. CHAPTER 2Antiquity to the Middle Ages: Music in Rome, Jerusalem,and the Early Christian World
  • 2. Rome ROMAN EMPIRE, 177 C.EWhile the Romans were fine politicians andsoldiers, and spectacularly good engineers,much of their painting, sculpture, andmusic was derived from the practices ofthe ancient Greeks.
  • 3. Music in Ancient Rome• No remnants of Roman music survives - as approximately 50 examples of Greek music survives today.• Romans mention use of music very much in the same social and functional settings as did the Greeks.
  • 4. Roman Musical Instruments• Romans used the simple wooden flute, the lyre, the kithara, and the aulos (which they called the tibia, since it resembled a bone).• Tuba – only distinct Roman instrument made of bronze; cylindrical bore and bell at the end. - used primarily to signal commands during battle. [also predecessor to trumpet and trombone]
  • 5. Ancient Greek/Roman Musical Instruments Roman Tibia Kithara Roman Tuba
  • 6. Two Major Roman IntellectsMartianus Capella (c480-524 C.E.) -formulates the categories of knowledge we stilltoday call the seven liberal arts: ● trivium - grammar, logic, and oratory. ● quadrivium - arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, and music.(Remained in force in universities in the West well intothe Renaissance)
  • 7. Two Major Roman IntellectsBoethius (c480-524 C.E.) - Roman intellect who writes his own interpretation of ancient Greek music theory in a treatise called De institutione musica (Fundamentals of Music). [remained in use until the 18th century and greatly influenced Western music]• Divided music into three general types categories: – musica mundane (music of the spheres)/”real” music – musica humana (music of the human body) – musica instrumentalis (earthly music as we know it performed by voices and/or instruments).
  • 8. Jerusalem and the Rise of Early Christian Music• Liturgy - the collection of prayers, chants, readings, and ritual acts by which the theology of the church (or any organized religion) is practiced.• Chant - the monophic religious music that is sung in a house of worship.• Jerusalem: the birthplace of Christianity and Christian liturgy/”eastern” Christian church center.• Rome: “western” Christian church center.
  • 9. Traits of Early Christian Music• No record of early Christian or Jewish music as passed down orally [especially so for first 800 years of Christian church]• Liturgical texts were in Greek and improvised musically.• Cantor – specially trained person who led the singing at services.
  • 10. Important types of early Christian chant & the regions in which they flourished• Coptic chant: music of the Christian Church of Egypt (Alexandria), entirely unwritten. – still exists today/passed along orally.• Byzantine chant: the music of the Eastern Church with its center in Constantinople (Istanbul). – predecessor of the chant of today’s Greek Orthodox Church and Russian Orthodox Church.• Roman chant: the chant sung in Rome prior to the 10th century. – predecessor to Gregorian chant.• Ambrosian chant: a dialect of chant developed composed by St. Ambrose (340?-397C.E.) for the church in and around Milan, where he was bishop.• Mozarabic chant: chant in Spain before and after the Moslem conquest. – survives in twenty manuscripts dating from the ninth through the fourteenth centuries.
  • 11. THE BEGINNING OF A GALLICAN OFFERTORYGallican Chant: Christian chant of medieval Gaul(France/Switzerland) also mostly improvised, though 50chants survive today; strong ties to Roman chant.[Along with Roman chant, major influence in development ofGregorian chant in the 8th, 9th, 10th centuries]