Chapter 2 antiquity to the middle agesPresentation Transcript
CHAPTER 2Antiquity to the Middle Ages: Music in Rome, Jerusalem,and the Early Christian World
Rome ROMAN EMPIRE, 177 C.EWhile the Romans were fine politicians andsoldiers, and spectacularly good engineers,much of their painting, sculpture, andmusic was derived from the practices ofthe ancient Greeks.
Music in Ancient Rome• No remnants of Roman music survives - as approximately 50 examples of Greek music survives today.• Romans mention use of music very much in the same social and functional settings as did the Greeks.
Roman Musical Instruments• Romans used the simple wooden flute, the lyre, the kithara, and the aulos (which they called the tibia, since it resembled a bone).• Tuba – only distinct Roman instrument made of bronze; cylindrical bore and bell at the end. - used primarily to signal commands during battle. [also predecessor to trumpet and trombone]
Ancient Greek/Roman Musical Instruments Roman Tibia Kithara Roman Tuba
Two Major Roman IntellectsMartianus Capella (c480-524 C.E.) -formulates the categories of knowledge we stilltoday call the seven liberal arts: ● trivium - grammar, logic, and oratory. ● quadrivium - arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, and music.(Remained in force in universities in the West well intothe Renaissance)
Two Major Roman IntellectsBoethius (c480-524 C.E.) - Roman intellect who writes his own interpretation of ancient Greek music theory in a treatise called De institutione musica (Fundamentals of Music). [remained in use until the 18th century and greatly influenced Western music]• Divided music into three general types categories: – musica mundane (music of the spheres)/”real” music – musica humana (music of the human body) – musica instrumentalis (earthly music as we know it performed by voices and/or instruments).
Jerusalem and the Rise of Early Christian Music• Liturgy - the collection of prayers, chants, readings, and ritual acts by which the theology of the church (or any organized religion) is practiced.• Chant - the monophic religious music that is sung in a house of worship.• Jerusalem: the birthplace of Christianity and Christian liturgy/”eastern” Christian church center.• Rome: “western” Christian church center.
Traits of Early Christian Music• No record of early Christian or Jewish music as passed down orally [especially so for first 800 years of Christian church]• Liturgical texts were in Greek and improvised musically.• Cantor – specially trained person who led the singing at services.
Important types of early Christian chant & the regions in which they flourished• Coptic chant: music of the Christian Church of Egypt (Alexandria), entirely unwritten. – still exists today/passed along orally.• Byzantine chant: the music of the Eastern Church with its center in Constantinople (Istanbul). – predecessor of the chant of today’s Greek Orthodox Church and Russian Orthodox Church.• Roman chant: the chant sung in Rome prior to the 10th century. – predecessor to Gregorian chant.• Ambrosian chant: a dialect of chant developed composed by St. Ambrose (340?-397C.E.) for the church in and around Milan, where he was bishop.• Mozarabic chant: chant in Spain before and after the Moslem conquest. – survives in twenty manuscripts dating from the ninth through the fourteenth centuries.
THE BEGINNING OF A GALLICAN OFFERTORYGallican Chant: Christian chant of medieval Gaul(France/Switzerland) also mostly improvised, though 50chants survive today; strong ties to Roman chant.[Along with Roman chant, major influence in development ofGregorian chant in the 8th, 9th, 10th centuries]