Chapter 18 music at the french royal courtsPresentation Transcript
CHAPTER 18MUSIC AT THEFRENCH ROYAL COURT
• During the Hundred Years’ War, the fortunes of the French suffered a serious reversal – the English eventually captured the French capital, Paris.• The medieval wheel of fortune began to turn positively for the French, however – when Joan of Arc (c1412-1431) led new king, Charles VII, to the city of Reims and had him crowned there on July 16, 1429.• Although the winds of war were now blowing favorably, three generations of French kings preferred to reside not in Paris – but in the Loire Valley some 200 miles to the south.• The French royal chapel of each of these kings was directed by Johannes Ockeghem (c1410-1497) – a composer of renown who enjoyed unusual longevity and influence.
The French Royal ChapelWith JohannesOckeghem(presumably) at the farright, wearing glasses.The singers arechanting a Gloria froma large music bookplaced on a lectern.
JOHANNES OCKEGHEM• Johannes Ockeghem (1410-1497) was born in the Burgundian lands south of Brussels, – by 1451 had joined the French royal chapel in the Loire Valley, where he remained until his death in 1497.• Surviving from Ockeghem’s pen are twenty-five chansons, six motets, and fifteen Masses.• In his chansons, Ockeghem demonstrates the first systematic attempt to structure compositions by using imitation – one voice duplicates the notes and rhythms of another for a brief span of time.• Renaissance might well be called the “age of imitative counterpoint.”
CANONIC CHANSON PRENEZ SUR MOIOckeghem’s Prenez sur moi (c1460) is one of the earliest fullycanonic chansons (there is no non-canonic supporting bass). The follower voices enter not at the unison or octave, but atthe interval of the fourth. The beginning of the canonic chanson Prenez sur moi (Take from me).
OCKEGHEM’S MISSA PROLATIONUM• A mensuration canon is one in which two voices perform the same music at different rates of speed – one pulling farther and farther ahead of the other.• His Missa Prolationum (c1475) involves two separate mensuration canons worked out among the four voices.• Most extraordinary contrapuntal achievement of the 15th century.• Here four voices sing two two-voice mensuration canons.• A mensuration canon is extremely difficult to construct – not even J.S. Bach fashioned musical canons this complex or technically difficult.
The beginning of the Kyrie of Ockeghem’s Missa Prolationum with thetop two voices operating in 2/4 and ¾ time, and the bottom two in 6/8and 9/8 time.
A MUSICAL JOKE FOR THE FRENCH KING• The music theorist Heinrich Glarean tells the story of how the king of France (most likely King Louis XI) asked a singer of the court (apparently Josquin des Prez) to compose a piece in which he, too, could participate.• The canonic chanson that Josquin created for this purpose is a musical joke in that – while the upper two voices work out a canon – the vox regis (voice of the king) holds the single pitch D.• Moreover, to assure that the monotonic monarch didn’t stray in pitch, Josquin had the bass voice sound the same pitch (an octave lower) on every other of its notes.
The beginning of Josquin’s chansonGuillaume se va chauffer (William is going to warm himself ; c1482)
PHILIPPE BASIRON AND THE PARAPHRASE MOTET• In paraphrase technique a composer takes a pre- existing plainsong (Gregorian chant) and embellishes it somewhat – imparting to it a rhythmic profile – the elaborated chant then serves as the basic melodic material for a polyphonic composition.• Paraphrase technique applied to a Mass creates a paraphrase Mass – when applied to a motet creates a paraphrase motet.• A fine example of a paraphrase motet can be seen in the Salve, Regina (c1475) of Philippe Basiron (c1449-1491).
The beginning of Philippe Basiron’s Salve, Regina as well as the chant, which serves as the basis of the paraphrase.
ANTOINE BUSNOYS AND THE IMITATIVE CHANSON• Antoine Busnoys (c1435-1492) was born in the Burgundian lands of northern France, but as a youth moved south to the Loire Valley to the city of Tours – the abode of the king of France and his chapel master Johannes Ockeghem.• Like his mentor Ockeghem, Busnoys was a master of the imitative chanson .• Not only does his virelai Je ne puis vivre ainsy tousjours (I cannot live like this forever; c1460) incorporate abundant imitation at the unison – it sets a text that includes an acrostic which forms the name Jacqueline de Hacqueville
A garden of love wherein two gentlemen and two ladies perform a chanson Both ladies are singing from a rotulus (sheet music).