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DOMAINS OFLEARNINGDr. James Malce Alo, RN, MAN, MAPsycho, PHD.
• There is more than one type of learning. A committee of colleges, led by Benjamin Bloom (1956), identified three domains of educational activities: 1. Cognitive: mental skills (Knowledge) 2. Affective: growth in feelings or emotional areas (Attitude) 3. Psychomotor: manual or physical skills (Skills)Three Types 2 3/9/2013
• (Bloom, 1956) involves: • knowledge and the • development of intellectual skills. • This includes the: • recall or recognition of specific facts, • procedural patterns, and • concepts that serve in the development of intellectual abilities and skills.Cognitive Domain 3 3/9/2013
Example and Key WordsCategory (verbs) Examples: Recite a policy. Quote prices from memory to a customer. Knows the safety rules.Knowledge: Recall data or information. Key Words: defines, describes, identifies, knows, labels, lists, matches, names, outlines, recalls, recognizes, reproduces, selects, states. Examples: Rewrites the principles of test writing. Explain in ones own words the steps for performing a complex task. Translates an equationComprehension: Understand the meaning, into a computer spreadsheet.translation, interpolation, and interpretation ofinstructions and problems. State a problem in Key Words: comprehends, converts, defends,Six major categoriesones own words. distinguishes, estimates, explains, extends, generalizes, gives an example, infers, interprets, paraphrases, predicts, rewrites, summarizes, 4 translates. 3/9/2013
Examples: Use a manual to calculate an employees vacation time. Apply laws of statistics to evaluate theApplication: Use a concept in a new reliability of a written test.situation or unprompted use of anabstraction. Applies what was learned in Key Words: applies, changes, computes, constructs,the classroom into novel situations in the demonstrates, discovers, manipulates, modifies,work place. operates, predicts, prepares, produces, relates, shows, solves, uses. Examples: Troubleshoot a piece of equipment by using logical deduction. Recognize logical fallacies inAnalysis: Separates material or concepts reasoning. Gathers information from a departmentinto component parts so that its and selects the required tasks for training.organizational structure may beunderstood. Distinguishes between facts Key Words: analyzes, breaks down, compares,and inferences. contrasts, diagrams, deconstructs, differentiates, discriminates, distinguishes, identifies, illustrates, infers, outlines, relates, selects, separates. 5 3/9/2013
Examples: Write a company operations or process manual. Design a machine to perform a specific task. Integrates training from several sources to solve aSynthesis: Builds a structure or pattern problem. Revises and process to improve the outcome.from diverse elements. Put partstogether to form a whole, with emphasis Key Words: categorizes, combines, compiles,on creating a new meaning or structure. composes, creates, devises, designs, explains, generates, modifies, organizes, plans, rearranges, reconstructs, relates, reorganizes, revises, rewrites, summarizes, tells, writes. Examples: Select the most effective solution. Hire the most qualified candidate. Explain and justify a new budget.Evaluation: Make judgments about thevalue of ideas or materials. Key Words: appraises, compares, concludes, contrasts, criticizes, critiques, defends, describes, discriminates, evaluates, explains, interprets, justifies, relates, summarizes, supports. 6 3/9/2013
• (Krathwohl, Bloom, Masia, 1973) includes: • the manner in which we deal with things emotionally, such as • feelings, • values, • appreciation, • enthusiasms, • motivations, and • attitudes.Affective Domain 7 3/9/2013
Example and Key WordsCategory (verbs) Examples: Listen to others with respect. Listen for and remember the name of newly introduced people.Receiving Phenomena: Awareness, willingnessto hear, selected attention. Key Words: asks, chooses, describes, follows, gives, holds, identifies, locates, names, points to, selects, sits, erects, replies, uses. Examples: Participates in class discussions. Gives a presentation. QuestionsResponding to Phenomena: Active participation new ideals, concepts, models, etc. in order toon the part of the learners. Attends and reacts to fully understand them. Know the safety rulesa particular phenomenon. Learning outcomes and practices them.may emphasize compliance in responding,Five major categorieswillingness to respond, or satisfaction in Key Words: answers, assists, aids, complies,responding (motivation). conforms, discusses, greets, helps, labels, performs, practices, presents, reads, recites,8 reports, selects, tells, writes. 3/9/2013
Examples: Demonstrates belief in the democratic process. Is sensitive towards individual andValuing: The worth or value a person cultural differences (value diversity). Shows theattaches to a particular object, phenomenon, ability to solve problems. Proposes a plan toor behavior. This ranges from simple social improvement and follows through withacceptance to the more complex state of commitment. Informs management on matterscommitment. Valuing is based on the that one feels strongly about.internalization of a set of specified values,while clues to these values are expressed in Key Words: completes, demonstrates,the learners overt behavior and are often differentiates, explains, follows, forms, initiates,identifiable. invites, joins, justifies, proposes, reads, reports, selects, shares, studies, works. Examples: Recognizes the need for balance between freedom and responsible behavior. Accepts responsibility for ones behavior. Explains the role of systematic planning in solving problems. Accepts professional ethicalOrganization: Organizes values into priorities standards. Creates a life plan in harmony withby contrasting different values, resolving abilities, interests, and beliefs. Prioritizes timeconflicts between them, and creating an effectively to meet the needs of the organization,unique value system. The emphasis is on family, and self.comparing, relating, and synthesizing values. Key Words: adheres, alters, arranges, combines, compares, completes, defends, explains, formulates, generalizes, identifies, integrates, modifies, orders, organizes, prepares, relates, synthesizes. Examples: Shows self-reliance when working independently. Cooperates in group activities (displays teamwork). Uses an objectiveInternalizing values (characterization): Has a approach in problem solving. Displays avalue system that controls their behavior. The professional commitment to ethical practice on abehavior is pervasive, consistent, predictable, daily basis. Revises judgments and changesand most importantly, characteristic of the behavior in light of new evidence. Values peoplelearner. Instructional objectives are concerned for what they are, not how they look.with the students general patterns ofadjustment (personal, social, emotional). Key Words: acts, discriminates, displays, influences, listens, modifies, performs, practices, 9 proposes, qualifies, questions, revises, serves, solves, verifies. 3/9/2013
• (Simpson, 1972) includes: • physical movement, • coordination, and • use of the motor-skill areas. • Development of these skills requires practice and is measured in terms of speed, precision, distance, procedures, or techniques in execution.Psychomotor Domain 10 3/9/2013
Category Example and Key Words (verbs) Examples: Detects non-verbal communication cues. Estimate where a ball will land after it is thrown and thenPerception: The ability to use moving to the correct location to catch the ball. Adjustssensory cues to guide motor heat of stove to correct temperature by smell and taste ofactivity. This ranges from sensory food. Adjusts the height of the forks on a forklift bystimulation, through cue selection, to comparing where the forks are in relation to the pallet.translation. Key Words: chooses, describes, detects, differentiates, distinguishes, identifies, isolates, relates, selects. Examples: Knows and acts upon a sequence of steps in a manufacturing process. Recognize ones abilities andSet: Readiness to act. It includes limitations. Shows desire to learn a new processmental, physical, and emotional sets. (motivation). NOTE: This subdivision of Psychomotor isThese three sets are dispositions that closely related with the “Responding to phenomena”predetermine a persons response to subdivision of the Affective domain.different situations (sometimes calledSeven major categoriesmindsets). Key Words: begins, displays, explains, moves, proceeds, reacts, shows, states, volunteers. 11 3/9/2013
Examples: Performs a mathematical equation as demonstrated. Follows instructions to build a model.Guided Response: The early stages in learning a Responds hand-signals of instructorcomplex skill that includes imitation and trial and error. while learning to operate a forklift.Adequacy of performance is achieved by practicing. Key Words: copies, traces, follows, react, reproduce, responds Examples: Use a personal computer. Repair a leaking faucet. Drive a car.Mechanism: This is the intermediate stage in learning acomplex skill. Learned responses have become habitual Key Words: assembles, calibrates,and the movements can be performed with some constructs, dismantles, displays,confidence and proficiency. fastens, fixes, grinds, heats, manipulates, measures, mends, mixes, organizes, sketches. Examples: Maneuvers a car into a tight parallel parking spot. Operates a computer quickly and accurately. Displays competence while playingComplex Overt Response: The skillful performance of the piano.motor acts that involve complex movementpatterns. Proficiency is indicated by a quick, accurate, and Key Words: assembles, builds,highly coordinated performance, requiring a minimum of calibrates, constructs, dismantles,energy. This category includes performing without displays, fastens, fixes, grinds, heats,hesitation, and automatic performance. For example, manipulates, measures, mends,players are often utter sounds of satisfaction or expletives mixes, organizes, sketches.as soon as they hit a tennis ball or throw a football,because they can tell by the feel of the act what the resultwill produce. NOTE: The Key Words are the same as Mechanism, but will have adverbs or adjectives that indicate that the performance is quicker, better, more accurate, etc. 12 3/9/2013
Examples: Responds effectively to unexpected experiences. Modifies instruction to meet the needs of theAdaptation: Skills are well learners. Perform a task with a machine that it was notdeveloped and the individual can originally intended to do (machine is not damaged andmodify movement patterns to fit there is no danger in performing the new task).special requirements. Key Words: adapts, alters, changes, rearranges, reorganizes, revises, varies.Origination: Creating new Examples: Constructs a new theory. Develops a new andmovement patterns to fit a particular comprehensive training programming. Creates a newsituation or specific problem. gymnastic routine.Learning outcomes emphasizecreativity based upon highly Key Words: arranges, builds, combines, composes,developed skills. constructs, creates, designs, initiate, makes, originates. 13 3/9/2013
“Greater learning, means greater responsibility and accountability.” Thank you. - Dr. James M. Alo 14 3/9/2013