Critical thinking & Nursing Process drjma

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The principal goal of education is to create men and women . . .who have minds which can be critical, can verify, and not accept everything they are offered. …

The principal goal of education is to create men and women . . .who have minds which can be critical, can verify, and not accept everything they are offered.
-Jean Piaget

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  • 1. DR. JAMES Malce ALO drjma 2/19/2014
  • 2.  The principal goal of education is to create men and women . . .who have minds which can be critical, can verify, and not accept everything they are offered. -Jean Piaget drjma 2/19/2014
  • 3. drjma 2/19/2014
  • 4. ongoing activity for nb professional nurses. is the process that allows nurses to see the big picture (envision the overall perspective) instead of focusing only on details.  Ennis’(1987) classic description, “reasonable reflective thinking that is focused on deciding what to believe or do.”  Every day, nurses make decisions that are derived through critical thinking.  Making clinical judgments relies on critical thinking.  Critical thinking is identified as an essential nursing competency by the National League for Nurses (1997).  drjma 2/19/2014
  • 5. 1. 2. 3. Mental operations, Knowledge, and Attitudes drjma 2/19/2014
  • 6.  - Activities such as decision-making and reasoning that are used to find or create meaning.  result of these mental operations is  creative, appropriate problem solving.  Other cognitive operations involved in critical thinking are; strategizing (planning) and  evaluating one’s thinking  drjma 2/19/2014
  • 7.  knowledge   base that includes 1. declarative knowledge, (specific facts or information) 2. operative knowledge (an understanding of the nature of that knowledge).  Nursing curricula assist the student in learning specific facts about nursing and the delivery of quality care. drjma 2/19/2014
  • 8.  In order to think critically, to solve problems, and to make decisions, nurses must develop a broad base of knowledge. It includes;  from other disciplines such as science (anatomy, physiology,biology), psychology, and philosophy (logic).  Nurses apply this knowledge to specific client situations through critical thinking. drjma 2/19/2014
  • 9.  ATTITUDES        OF CRITICAL THINKERS • Tolerance, open-mindedness, nonjudgmental mind-set • Curiosity, proactive, flexible, organized • Persistence, intellectual courage • Respect for others’ perspectives • Comfort dealing with ambiguity, uncertainty • Intellectual humility (knowing that one does not have all the answers) • Self-confidence (belief in own ability to think things through and make appropriate decisions) (Data from: Beyer [1987]; Ennis [1987]; Krathwohl, Bloom, & Masia [1964]; Paul, [1993]; and Rubenfeld & Scheffer [1999].) drjma 2/19/2014
  • 10.  1. Trigger event: A problem that is reframed as an opportunity for improvement  2. Appraisal of the situation: Selfexamination of one’s underlying assumptions  3. Exploration: Searching for new ideas, solutions, and/or approaches  4. Integration: Incorporating new information and new ways of thinking drjma 2/19/2014
  • 11. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Identify goals. Determine what knowledge is required. Assess the margin for error. Determine the amount of time available for decision making. Identify available resources. Recognize factors (i.e., biases, fatigue) that may influence decision making (Alfaro-LeFevre, 1998). drjma 2/19/2014
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  • 13.  Critical thinkers are also creative thinkers. Both types of thinking require assessment and result in new discoveries (Paul & Ballin, 1988).  creative problem solving  is goal-directed thinking that leads to achievement by using new ideas or methods.  Creativity is “the basic building block of invention and thus innovation" drjma 2/19/2014
  • 14.  Creative thinking is the foundation for individualizing client care, in that the nurse identifies unique needs of each client and develops interventions specific to those needs. Without creative thinking, nursing care would become routine, that is, the same for every client. drjma 2/19/2014
  • 15. Critical Thinkers Creative Thinkers • Defines the parameters of a problem • Defines the existing problem • Sets reasonable criteria for assessing the • Delays judgment or suspends criticism of alternatives appropriateness of an action • Adapts one’s behavior as needs • Exercises judgment in selecting the best alternative and/or norms change • Transfers learning from one situation to another • Learns from mistakes • Pays attention to the problem at hand • Breaks away from usual problem-solving methods to develop creative responses drjma 2/19/2014
  • 16. • Detects ambiguity or false inferences • Analyzes interrelationships of ideas from several perspectives • Tests out inferences by considering opposing viewpoints • Creates innovative solutions to complex problems Ref:(Data from Gilmartin [1999] and Paul [1993].) drjma 2/19/2014
  • 17.  When making a clinical decision, the nurse determines action that will help move the client toward achievement of the expected outcomes.  Thus, decision making is defined as considering and selecting interventions from a repertoire of actions that facilitate the achievement of a desired outcome (Pesut, 1999). drjma 2/19/2014
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